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Full text of "English Reader (Std11)"

ENGLISH READER 



HIGHER SECONDARY - FIRST YEAR 

PART II - ENGLISH 



Untouchability is a sin 
Untouchability is a crime 
Untouchability is inhuman 



TAMILNADU 

TEXTBOOK CORPORATION 

College Road, Chennai - 600 006. 



© Government of Tamilnadu 
First Edition -2004 

Reprient - 2006 Chairperson 

Dr. S. SWAMINATHA PILLAI 

Former Director 

School of Distance Education 

Bharathiar University, Coimbatore 

Overall Reviewer 
Thiru S.GOMATHINATHAN 

Special Officer, ELT / Reader, D.T.E.R.T. (Retired), 
W — 5 (Old 302), 1 9 th Street, Annanagar Western Extension, 
Chennai-600101. 
Reviewers : 

Dr. V. Saraswathi Dr. Noor Jehan Kother Adam 

Former Professor of English Reader in English 

University of Madras, Chennai. Ethiraj College for Women, Chennai. 

Authors : 

Ms. Priscilla Josephine Sarah S. 

Researcher in ELT 

W-5 (Old 302), 19th Street, 

Anna Nagar Western Extension, Chennai. 

Dr. A. Joseph Dorairaj Thiru. S. Muthukrishnan 

Reader in English Principal 

Gandhigram Rural University Jaigopal Garodia Vivekananda Vidy alay a 

Gandhigram Matriculation Higher Secondary School 

Dindugul District Annanagar, Chennai. 

Ms. Nirmala Jairaj Thiru. K. V. Renganathan 

Language Consultant Former Principal 

5/36, 1 3th Avenue, Harrington Rd. Govt. Muslim Teachers' Training Institute 

Chetpet, Chennai. Triplicane, Chennai. 

Price : Rs. 18.00 



This book has been prepared by The Directorate of School Education on 
behalf of the Government of Tamilnadu. 



This book has been printed on 60 GS.M. paper. 



Printed by Offset at : 

SENTHIL OFFSET PERINTERS, SIVAKASI - 626 123. 



THE NATIONAL ANTHEM 

FULL VERSION 

Jana-gana-mana-adhinayaka jaya he 

Bharata-bhagya-vidhata. 
Punjaba-Sindhu-Gujarata-Maratha- 

Dravida-Utkala-Banga 
Vindhya-Himachala-Yamuna-Ganga 

Uchchhala-j aladhi-taranga 
Tava Subha name jage, 

Tava Subha asisa mage, 

Gahe tava jaya-gatha. 
Jana-gana-mangala-dayaka jaya he 

Bharata-bhagya-vidhata. 
Jaya he, jaya he, jaya he 
Jaya jaya, jaya, jaya he. 

SHORT VERSION 

Jana-gana-mana-adhinayaka jaya he 

Bharata-bhagya-vidhata. 
Jaya he, jaya he, jaya he 

Jaya jaya, jaya, jaya he. 

AUTHENTIC ENGLISH TRANSLATION OF 
THE NATIONAL ANTHEM 

Thou art the ruler of the minds of all people, 

Thou dispenser of India's destiny. 
Thy name rouses the hearts of the Punjab, Sind, 

Gujarat and Maratha, of Dravid, Orissa and Bengal. 
It echoes in the hills of the Vindhyas and Himalayas, 

mingles in the music of the Yamuna and Ganges 

and is chanted by the waves of the Indian Sea. 
They pray for Thy blessings and sing Thy praise 
The saving of all people waits in Thy hand, 
Thou dispenser of India's destiny. 
Victory, Victory, Victory to Thee. 



THE NATIONAL INTEGRATION PLEDGE 

"I solemnly pledge to work with dedication to preserve and 
strengthen the freedom and integrity of the nation." 

"I further affirm that I shall never resort to violence and that all 
differences and disputes relating to religion, language, region or other political 
or economic grievances should be settled by peaceful and constitutional 
means." 



INVOCATION TO GODDESS TAMIL 

Bharat is like the face beauteous of Earth clad in wavy seas; 

Deccan is her brow crescent-like on which the fragrant Tilak' is the 
blessed Dravidian land. 

Like the fragrance of that 'Tilak' plunging the world in joy supreme 
reigns Goddess Tamil with renown spread far and wide. 

Praise unto 'You, Goddess Tamil, whose majestic youthfulness, 
inspires awe and ecstasy. 



IV 



PREFACE 

In your hands is the new English book prepared in accordance with the 
latest syllabus as part of the competency-based curriculum for school education 
introduced in the year 2003-2004. The two-year higher secondary education is 
crucial in the educational system in vogue in Tamilnadu, if not in India. From the 
more-or-less terminal educational programme of secondary education (upto 
Standard X) this spell of two years (Stds. XI and XII) is intended to prepare the 
secondary school leavers both for general and professional higher education. 
Further, this interlocking subsystem overlaps four different state systems such as 
State Board, Matriculation, Anglo-Indian and Oriental schools and two different 
central systems such as Central Board and all- India Secondary Schools. The 
outcomes of these six systems have their confluence in the higher secondary 
education in Tamilnadu. However the two central systems have their own spell 
of two years for Stds. XI and XII in which a few outputs of the State systems 
may also join. Envisaging these eventualities of secondary education, the new 
higher secondary education curriculum is designed and developed to cater to 
such diverse entries to follow a joint regulated path towards coaxial development 
of the most vulnerable and placid stage of adolescent children of the age- group 
16+ to 18+ years. 

This book taking its thread from Std. X aims at developing communicative 
competence rather than achieving simple and straight objectives. Not merely 
achievement but more importantly proficiency in English is the focus of all the 
lessons and tasks provided in this book. High scores in the examination in the 
subject should in effect correspond with independent ability to use English for 
academic, occupational and even social purposes. Gradually moving away from 
the traditional evaluation tied to the textual information this book guides the learners 
to apply the linguistic competence developed through this book in communicative 
contexts in real life, academic or professional. 

The following approach is adopted in this book: 

I. Cognitive competence A. Language 1 . Vocabulary 

elements 2. Grammar 

II. Psychomotor competence B. Language 3. Listening 

skills 4. Speaking 



5. Reading 

6. Writing 

C. Communication 7. Study skills 
skills 8. Occupational 

skills 

9. Strategic(social) 
skills 

HI. Affective competence D. Creative skills 10. Self-expression 

Prose lessons are extracted from existing literature in Indian life of today, 
but include the British tradition too. Poems selected are in some way or other 
related to the prose lessons. The suggested work following the lessons comprises 
a number of tasks, rather than the traditional exercises. A task is more a real-life 
activity for the learners to gain direct language experience. Unlike the conventional 
exercises which are repetitive in nature tending to develop in the learners 
as a habit, the tasks are intended to provide opportunities for the 
learners to use English as a dynamic creative tool. 

The teachers are expected to understand the significance of this 
communicative approach to language learning and the learners to realise the 
importance of this approach in enriching their language experience for individualistic 
application in natural life. The teachers may develop additional parallel tasks to 
suit the learners of different levels entering into this subsystem. 

The teacher resources will embark upon novel strategies of classroom 
transaction adopting interactive teaching techniques to inculcate in the learners 
the spirit of cooperative learning. The sections on self-evaluation given at the end 
of each lesson, prose or poem or even non-detailed text, guide the learners to 
prepare for responding to different types of questions which may constitute the 
question paper. 

Parents will do well if they lend adequate support to this approach so that 
their wards will be well-equipped to take part in competitive and entrance 
examinations which have become the order of the day in this world of tight but 
multiple opportunities for the self-reliant and self-confident youth. 

- The Team 



CONTENTS 



Unit 


Title 


Page 


I 


PROSE - BON VOYAGE 

(compiled by S. Priscilla Josephine Sarah) 


6 


POEM - OFF TO OUTER SPACE 
TOMORROW MORNING 


40 


II 


PROSE - MERCY AND JUSTICE 

(from 'Merchant of Venice') 

(edited by Dr. A. Joseph Dorairaj) 


53 


POEM -SONNETNO: 116 


86 


III 


PROSE -THE FARMER 

(from Takazhi Sivasankara Pillai's short story) 
(edited by Ms. Nirmala Jairaj) 


97 


POEM - THE SOLITARY REAPER 


133 


IV 


PROSE -ALICE MEETS 

HUMPTY DUMPTY 
(from 'Through the Looking Glass') 
(edited and compiled by 
S. Priscilla Josephine Sarah ) 


142 


POEM - IS LIFE, BUT A DREAM? 


175 


V 


PROSE - THE ROAD TO SUCCESS 
(extracted from 'Dale Carnegie') 
(edited by K.V. Renganathan) 


183 


POEM - BE THE BEST 


214 


VI 


PROSE - VISION FOR THE NATION 

(from 'India 2020') 

(edited by S. Muthukrishnan) 


218 


POEM - CAPTAIN! MY CAPTAIN! 


246 



Vll 



UNIT I 

COMPETENCIES 

A LISTENING: Listening to rhythmic pattern in English sentences 

B SPEAKING: Participating in dialogues at school 
Conversing at the doctor's 

C READING: Skimming 
Reading aloud meaningfully 

D VOCABULARY: Using words related to computers, media, business, 
sports and games, and weather 
Identifying words in their extensive reading and relating them meaningfully 

E STUDY SKILLS: Using the dictionary independently to identify the whole 
gamut of a word including usage 
Editing/drafting. 

F GRAMMAR: Using tenses in relevant contexts 
Differentiating between tenses of the same time 
Using different tenses for a specific time aspect 

G WRITING: Writing a paragraph 

Writing catchy slogans for advertisements 

H OCCUPATIONAL COMPETENCY: Preparing a report 

I STRATEGIC COMPETENCY: Expressing beliefs on language learning 

J CREATD7E COMPETENCY: Writing an essay on a given topic Writing 
a dialogue 

1 



A. Listening 

I. The teacher will read a couple of lines from a nursery rhyme and 
another couple of lines from a poem. Listen carefully. 

(The teacher reads) 

II. Did you notice anything in common between the nursery rhyme and 
the poem? The teacher will read again. Listen. 

(The teacher reads) 

III. Now the teacher will read a few nonsense syllables followed by the 
lines. Listen again. 

(The teacher reads) 

Did you notice that the rhythm is the same in both, the lines of the 
nursery rhyme and the poem? 

(The 'turn' is used for the stressed syllable and the 'ti' for the 
unstressed syllable.) 

The characteristic rhythm of English speech depends upon the stressed 
syllables. In English sentences content words are stressed, while structural 
words are generally not. (Content words are nouns, adjectives, main verbs, 
adverbs, demonstratives and interrogatives. Structural words are articles, personal 
and relative pronouns, auxiliary verbs, prepositions and conjunctions.) The basic 
rule of English rhythm is that the stressed syllables follow each other at regular 
intervals of time, that is, there is the same amount of time between each pair of 
stressed syllables in a given sentence. 

TV. The teacher will read a few sentences. Listen carefully. As she reads 
each sentence, look at the rhythmic pattern given below. 

1. ti 'turn ti 'turn 'turn ti 'turn 

2. 'turn 'turn ti 'turn 

3. ti 'turn titi 'turn ti 'turn ti 

4. ti 'turn 'turn ti titi 'turn 

5. 'turn ti 'turn ti 'turn ti 

It is important to remember that a number of short words in English are not 
stressed. This lack of stress has an effect on the pronunciation of some of them in 
connected speech, in order to keep time with the rhythm. 

2 



e.g. Priyan sang a song. 

Here 'a' is not pronounced as /e I/, but as /E/. It takes its weak form. This 
is because the time taken to say /e 1/ is longer than that for /E/. As timing is very 
important in English rhythm, this should be borne in mind. The words which take 
their weak forms are the auxiliaries, pronouns, articles, conjunctions, prepositions, 
etc. 

Task: The teacher will read a few sentences. Each sentence will be 
read twice. As each sentence is read, match the rhythmic 
pattern to the sentence read. (Write the number of the sentence 
against the pattern.) 

a) turn turn ti ti ti turn 

b) turn titi turn ti 

c) ti turn turn ti ti ti turn 

d) ti turn ti turn 

e) ti turn titi turn 

f) turn ti turn ti turn ti turn 

g) turn ti turn 
h) turn titi turn 
i) ti ti turn ti ti 
j) turn ti turn turn 

B. Speaking 

I. At School 

(i) The following is a dialogue between two class-mates before the 
morning bell: 



Sathya 

Saleema 

Sathya 

Saleema 

Sathya 
Saleema 

Sathya 



Hai, Saleema! 

Hello Sathya! Did you read today's paper? 
Yes, I did. In fact I wanted to discuss the Columbia shuttle 
tragedy with you. 

Yes, it's very sad. A few have dared to venture into space to 
satisfy the curiosity of many. 

Sometimes I feel - 'Space Exploration at what cost?' 
Very true. I wish we could explore space using robots instead 
of human beings. 

I think scientists have already started working on it. 
3 



Saleema : By the way Sathya, can I borrow your science record? I have 

got a diagram wrong. I need to check it. 
Sathya : I'll give it to you in the evening. 
Saleema : Thank you. There goes the bell. 
Sathya : Let's go to the assembly. 

(ii) The following is a dialogue between a student and a teacher: 

Student : Excuse me, Madam. 

Teacher : Yes. 

Student : A few of us from our class are representing our school in a 
Space and Science exhibition. It is to be held next week at the 
Birla Planetarium, Chennai. We would like to go to the library 
to refer to books and prepare for it. May we leave early today? 

Teacher : Yes, you may. But get the principal's permission first. 

Student : Yes, Ma' m. 

Teacher : What have you planned to exhibit? 

Student : We are working on a model of a space shuttle. 

Teacher : That's good. All the best! 

Task 1: Practise the above conversations, taking turns. 
Task 2: Form pairs. 

a) Discuss with your partner the day's news. 

b) Ask your neighbour to lend you something/do you a favour/ 
help you in your studies, etc. 

Task 3: Prepare dialogues between a student and a teacher: 

a) clearing doubts 

b) asking for permission 

c) submitting note-book/record-book 

Take turns and practise the dialogues. 

Task 4: Prepare a dialogue between a student and the principal, asking 
for permission to leave early. Practise the conversation. 

Remember to use polite terms like, 'please', 'may', etc., when 
talking to the teacher/principal. 



II. 



At the doctor's 



A student has sustained an injury while trekking, during an NCC camp. 
He goes to the doctor. 

Student 



Doctor 
Student 
Doctor 
Student 
Doctor 



Doctor 



Student 

Doctor 
Student 

Task 1: 

Task 2: 



Doctor, a couple of days ago while trekking, I slipped. I have 

pain in my ankle. I'm not able to walk. I'm limping about. 

Let me see. 

Ouch! It hurts. 

Your ankle is swollen badly. 

Do you think it could be a fracture? The pain is unbearable. 

Looks like a sprain. Still it's better to go in for an x-ray. You 

can go to the adjacent lab and have it x-rayed. 
(Student comes back with the x-ray) 
: Let me look at the x-ray. Mmm Fortunately, you haven't 

fractured your ankle. It's only a sprain. I'll prescribe some 

tablets to relieve the pain. In case the pain is very bad you 

can apply this gel. Take rest for three to four days. Don't move 

about much. 
: Doctor, next week we have our sports meet. I'm in the relay 

team. Will I be able to participate? 
: Why not? In three or four days you should be fit. 
: Thank you, doctor. 

Practise the above dialogue taking roles. 

Complete the following dialogues using the words/phrases 
given in brackets and practise it. 

(sneezing, remedy, running, ache, suffering from, 
temperature, hurt, runny, sore, cough) 

: Doctor, I'm forgetfulness. 

: Since when? 

: Sorry, I don't remember. 

b) Patient : Doctor, I have a throat. 

Doctor : Take lime and honey. 

Patient : That's my grandmother's 

Doctor : My grandmother's too. 



a) 



Patient 
Doctor 
Patient 



c) 


Patient 




Doctor 




Patient 




Doctor 


d) 


Patient 




Doctor 




Patient 


e) 


Patient 




Doctor 



I have a tooth , doctor. 

Open your mouth. Your gums are bleeding. 
I don't use gum. I only use a glue-stick. 
?! 

I have a very bad cold and I've been a lot 

too. 

And I see you have a nose. 

Yes, I hope nobody catches it! 

Doctor, I fell down and my knees. 

Where is she? 

f) Doctor : (taking the thermometer from the patient' s mouth) You ' re 

ahigh 

Patient : No. I'm running in the 400 m relay. 

C. Reading 

Pre-reading questions 

Twinkle, twinkle little star, 
How I wonder what you are! 
Up above the world so high, 

Like a diamond in the sky! 

Have you ever gazed at twinkling stars and wondered what they are ? 
How often have you wondered what is beyond the wide, blue canopy of the 
sky ? Have you ever wanted to reach out to the moon ? Have you ever wanted 
to touch the fluffy clouds? Ever wanted to pay a friendly visit to our 
neighbouring planets? Well, here's wishing bon voyage to all those who 
want to! 

BON VOYAGE 

'The heights by great men reached and kept 

Were not attained by sudden flight, 

But they, while their companions slept, 

Were toiling upward in the night. ' 

- H W Longfellow 

"That's one small step for a man, one giant leap for mankind", said 
Neil Armstrong, stepping on to the moon's surface on 21 st July 1969. 



Well, when she stepped into space, not once but twice, it proved to be a 
real leap for womankind, especially for the Indian woman. It was a leap bridging 
the gap between the impossible and the possible. 'You can't cross a great chasm 
in two short steps; it needs one big leap' . That's exactly what she did. 



Having slept under a canopy of stars in Karnal, Haryana, a sleepy little 
town in Northern India, where she was born, 'A strong desire to travel beyond 

the blue yonder, to fly into the heavens and touch the stars some day ' , was 

all that Kalpana Chawla dreamt of even as a child. Maybe she was rightly named 
Kalpana- 'imagination'. 

Even as a young girl she preferred to sketch and paint airplanes than dress 
up her Barbie dolls. A close friend remembers that Chawla often spoke about 
travelling to Mars as being her greatest ambition. Not only did she dare to dream 
but she also went the distance to fulfil her motto, 'Follow your dreams' . She 
went on to clock an incredible 760 hours in space, travelling 10.4 million km, as 
many as 252 times around the earth! In realisation of her dream, she was to say 
one day, "I could then see my reflection in the window and in the retina of my eye 

the whole earth and sky could be seen reflected so I called all the crew 

members one by one and they all saw it and everybody said, 'Oh, wow ! ' " 

Kalpana Chawla was born on the 1 st of July 1961, into a middle-class 
family, the youngest of four siblings. She maintained a brilliant academic 
record throughout school. She took part in almost everything, from athletics 
to dance and science modelling. 

She graduated from Tagore school, Karnal, in 1976. She went on to 
pursue her Bachelor of Science Degree in Aeronautical engineering through 
Punjab Engineering College. She happened to be the only girl in the aeronautics 
branch. Though her family initially resisted her decision to pursue a career in 
aeronautics, they finally relented, knowing her determined nature. This led on to 
a Master of Science degree in Aerospace engineering from Texas University in 
1 984, again after having to fight it out with her father who was very reluctant. 
Finally a mere five days before the last date for admissions closed, he relented on 
condition that her brother, Sanjay, accompany her to the States. Then followed 
her Doctorate of philosophy in Aerospace engineering from Colorado University 
in 1988. 



Chawla enjoyed flying, hiking, backpacking and reading. Her passion for 
flying began very early in life. Even when she was in school, she drew airplanes in 
drawing competitions and made models of the universe and constellations for 
geography projects. Her friends remember how she incessantly talked about 
designing and flying planes, "It was obvious that she wanted to do something 
special and she would achieve it". While she was pursuing her engineering, her 
brother Sanjay had enrolled himself in the Karnal flying school. During abreak 
from studies, Chawla accompanied her brother to the flight school, but the 
authorities wanted a written consent from her guardian before they would let her 
fly. Her father refused. It was then that Chawla got some valuable advice from 
her brother that she remembered all through her life: 'Everyone fights their (his) 
own battles'. 

It was this advice which encouraged her, to later earn her pilot's licenses 
for airplanes and gliders. She enjoyed flying aerobatics and tail- wheel 
airplanes. In fact, her inspiration to take up flying was JRD Tata, who flew 
the first mail flights in India. 

As a first-year student at Punjab Engineering College, she had surprised 
everyone by presenting a paper on time lapse in space. As secretary of the 
aero-astro club of the same college, she had arranged for a screening of the 
movie: 'Those magnificent men in their flying machines'. Her path to the 
'Milky Way ' was laid then. 

She had a single-minded determination to be an astronaut. Where did 
this grit come from? Surely from the steely resolve of her father, Banarsi 
Dass Chawla who had to flee Pakistan during Partition. He had tried his 
hand at odd jobs, and having practically no money to invest he had succeeded 
in building a thriving tyre business from scratch. 

Rakesh Sharma, the first Indian to go into space, in the guest column of 
a cover story in 'The Week' , featuring Kalpana Chawla, said, "Often I have 
been asked if, as a child, I had ever dreamt of going into space. I answered 
truthfully in the negative, explaining that India never had a manned space 
programme, and so dreaming about it would have been futile. Kalpana, on 
the other hand, was a small-town girl who dreamt big and had the self -belief 
to chase that dream. She chased it half way across the globe, caught up with it 
and then, lived it. That was the difference between us." 



Don Wilson, her thesis guide at the University of Texas, Arlington, recalls 
her as a "quiet and shy girl who was intimidated by her surroundings". But this 
was not for long. She adapted well, showing a burning desire to be an astronaut. 
"She just refused to take 'no' for an answer. And she was also an amazingly 
good student," he was to say later. 

In 1988, Kalpana Chawla started work at NASA Ames Research Center. 
Meanwhile she married Jean-Pierre Harrison, a flight instructor, drawn towards 
him probably becau se of her fascination for flying . In 1 993 , she j oined Overset 
Methods Inc., Los Altos, California, as Vice President and Research Scientist. 
In December 1994, she was selected by NASA out of 2962 applicants as an 
astronaut candidate in the 15 th group of astronauts. According to NASA, her 
academic accomplishments, intense physical fitness and experience as a pilot 
made her a natural choice. She reported to the Johnson Space Center in March 
1995. Her path to the 'Milky Way' was paved now. She had to undergo a 
year's rigorous training and evaluation. The training was so arduous that it could 
deter an average human being, but not Chawla. It was a training, which included 
experiencing the pull of gravity, which would increase the pulse rate from 72 to 
102 within seconds - a training where every movement could be a discovery of 
pain. The training required immense levels of fitness. 

In 1996, her dream became true. She started off on her path to the 
'Milky Way'. She was assigned as mission specialist on STS-87 Columbia, for 
a 16-day mission between November 19 to December 5, 1997, as part of a six 
astronaut crew. She became the first Indian or Indian- American to fly in the US 
space shuttle. She made history by becoming the first Indian born woman to 
achieve this feat, for she had sought American citizenship in the early 90's. 

Though her dream became true, she was blamed for making mistakes that 
sent a science satellite tumbling out of control. Other astronauts went on a space 
walk to capture it. However a post-flight NASA evaluation absolved her of 
blame, rating her a 'terrific astronaut' . 

Following her first space flight, in 1997, Chawla said, "The Ganges valley 
looked majestic, mind-boggling". "Africa looked like a desert and the Nile a vein 
ink". 

She said sunrises and sunsets defined her experience in space. "It is almost 

9 



as if everything is in fast forward. Then the moon races away from us and is lost 
in the glow of the earth's curvature". 

She yearned for a second chance. The chance came in 2000, when she 
was assigned to the crew of STS- 107 scheduled for launch in 2003 . Once again 
she had succeeded. It was not only good fortune, but also her having worked 
very, very hard. 

On being selected again, she said, "Just looking at Earth, looking at the 
stars during the night part of Earth; just looking at our planet roll by and the 
speed at which it goes by and the awe that it inspires; just so many such good 
thoughts come to your mind when you see all that," "Doing it again is like living a 
dream - a good dream - once again". 

But this time it was to be her eternal voyage. She became one with the 
space that she dared to dream about, and yet still dared to explore. 

The 16-day flight which began on January 16 th 2003 was a dedicated 
science and research mission. The crew successfully conducted 80 experiments. 
On February 1 st 2003, a breezy blue day over Florida, during entry, the space 
shuttle exploded into a ball of fire, sixteen minutes prior to scheduled landing. 
Kalpana Chawla and the other six crew members died an unfortunate death 
leaving the whole world mourning. 

Under the wide and starry sky, 
Dig the grave and let me lie. ' 

- RL Stevenson 

Probably R L Stenvenson's yearning was Kalpana Chawla's too ! 

She had said after her first space flight, that as the shuttle repeatedly passed 
over India, especially New Delhi, she pointed it out to the other crew members 
and said, "I lived near there". Now each time we look up into the sky, it's our 
turn to say, "She's up there". 



Kalpana Chawla carved an identity for herself in an otherwise men's 
domain. She will always inspire many young women as she has paved the way 
for them to dream - to think beyond horizons and reach for the stars. Her passion 
for space exploration has made her an inspiration and an icon to every little 
Indian girl. No wonder as many as 28,000 web-sites host information about her. 

10 



In her last interview to the press, Chawla said, " 'I was not born for one 
corner. The whole world is my native land.' So said Seneca, the philosopher. I 
have felt that connection for the Earth for as long as I can remember. And not just 
for Earth, but the whole universe. In summers, while growing up in India, we 
often slept in the courtyard under the stars. We gazed dreamily at the Milky Way, 
and once in a while caught some shooting stars. Times like those gave me the 
opportunity to wonder and ask all those very basic questions. That sense of awe 
for the heavens started there. The family and the surrounding community were 
mostly folks who had come to the area after Partition, most of them without 
many possessions. You couldn't lose by working hard and everyone seemed to 
follow that rule. It helped instil the notion that no matter what the circumstances, 
you could indeed follow your dreams." 

In the same interview, her message to Indian children was, " the journey 

matters as much as the goal. Listen to the sounds of nature Take good care of 

our fragile planet." 

When asked why anybody would want to climb Mt. Everest, Sir Edmund 
Hillary replied, "Because it is there!" 

To all the Hillarys, Armstrongs, Norgays, Pearys, Columbuses and Chawlas 
who want to explore "because it is there," in the generations to come, it is wishing 
bon voyage! 



Glossary: 






bon voyage 


/bBnvCl'jA:Z/ 


: 'have a good journey' 


chasm 


/'kGzm/ 


: a deep narrow opening 


canopy 


/'kGnEpl/ 


: a type of roof 


yonder 


fjBndEj 


: over there 


incredible 


/irfkredEbl/ 


: unbelievable 


retina 


/retlnE/ 


: a layer at the back of the eyeball 
that receives light and sends 
pictures of what the eye sees to 
the brain 


siblings 


/sEaLINz/ 


: brothers and/or sisters 


aeronautical 


/pF,rF!nC:tIkiy 


: of the study of travel through air 



11 



relented 


/rllertld 


: gave in 


constellations 


/kBnstE'lellnz/ 


: groups of stars forming a 
pattern 


incessantly 


/Irisesntll/ 


: endlessly 


glider 


/glaldE/ 


: a light air-craft without an engine 


aerobatics 


/eErEO'bGtlks/ 


: feats of flying performed for an 
audience 


aero-astro 


/eErEO GstrEC/ 


: relating to the air and stars/space 


Milky Way 


AtilUcI wel/ 


: the galaxy of which our solar 
system is a part 


astronaut 


/GstrEnC:t/ 


: one trained to travel in a 
spacecraft 


steely resolve 


/stiillrC^h/ 


: firm determination 


thriving 


/TralvHN/ 


: very successful 


manned 


/mGnd/ 


: operated by men 


intimidated 

NASA 


/IritMEcteltldf 


: frightened 

: National Aeronautics and 

Space Administration 

(Acronym) 


fascination 


/fGsl'nelLn/ 


: keen interest 


rigorous 


/rlgErEs/ 


: difficult 


arduous 


fA-.djCEs/ 


: requiring a lot of effort 


deter 


/ditE:/ 


: prevent 


space shuttle 


yspels LVtl/ 


: a rocket-launched spacecraft 


satellite 


/"sGtElalt/ 


: a natural object moving round 
a larger object in space or an 
artificial body placed in orbit 
round the earth or another planet 
to study it 


absolved 


/Eb'zBlvd/ 


: cleared of blame 


terrific 


/tErlfltf 


: great 


mind-boggling 


/malnd *bBglIN/ 


: overwhelming 



12 



curvature /"kEivEtLE/ : the degree to which something 

is curved 

domain /dEO'meln/ : region 

fragile /frGdZall/ : dehcate 

Choose the synonyms of the italicised words from the options given. 

e.g. A strong desire to travel beyond the blue yonder .... 
( yearning , happiness, thrilling, enjoying) 

1 . Even as a young girl she preferred to sketch and paint airplanes, 
(decided, hated, chose, enjoyed) 

2. She maintained a brilliant academic record, 
(outstanding, shining, twinkling, consistent) 

3 . "It was obvious that she wanted to do something special " 

(unsure, apparent, obsolete, unknown) 

4 . Where did this grit come from? 
(greatness, innocence, power, determination) 

5 . The training required immense levels of fitnes s. 
(intense, strict, great, maximum) 

Choose the antonyms of the italicised words from the options given. 

e.g. Other astronauts went on a space-walk to capture it. 
(seize, cease, free , photograph) 

1 . "The Ganges valley looked majestic " 

(great, beautiful, humble, shining) 

2 . . . j ust looking at our planet roll by and the awe that it inspires 

(fear, disrespect, surprise, honour) 

3 . The heights by great men reached ... were not attained by sudden flight . 
(swift, slow, calm, gradual) 

4. Though her family initially resisted her decision 

(accepted, prevented, disliked, proposed) 

5 . She had to fight it out with her father who was very reluctant. 
(relentless, exultant, eager, pleasant) 

13 



The following words are taken from the lesson. Supply the missing 
letters to find their synonyms. 

1 . consent - app a 1 

2. dare - br 

3. accompany - esc 

4. special - ex ord ry 

5. follow - sue 

6. fragile - fee 

The following words are taken from the lesson. Supply the missing 
letters to find their antonyms. 

1. remember - _org 

2. valuable - worth 

3. succeeded - fai 

4. mourning - rej ing 

5. quiet - talk 

6. futile - ful 

Comprehension: 

I. Level I 

1 . What did Neil Armstrong say on stepping onto the moon's surface? 

2. What was Kalpana Chawla's strong desire? 

3 . How was she different from others, as a young girl? 

4. What was her brother's advice? How did it help her? 

5. Who was Chawla's inspiration to take up flying? What was his 
achievement? 

6 . What was the difference between Rakesh Sharma and Chawla? 

7 . What did her thesis guide at the University of Texas say of her? 

8 . What sort of training did she undergo at NASA? 

9. When and how did Kalpana Chawla's dream become true? 

10. What did Chawla say on being selected again to go into space? 

II. Level II 

1 . Why did 'it' prove to be a real leap for womankind? 

2 . 'Maybe she was rightly named Kalpana - 'imagination' ' . Why? 

14 



3 . Why is Kalpana Chawla said to have inherited her grit from her father? 

4 . 'She yearned for a second chance ' . Why ? 

5. 'Probably R L Stevenson's yearning was Kalpana Chawla's too! ' 
Why? 

6. Why is Kalpana Chawla an icon to every Indian girl? 

7 . 'I have felt that connection for the Earth for as long as I can remember' 
- What is that connection? 

8. How did Kalpana Chawla come to believe that one could follow 
one's dreams? 

III. Answer in a paragraph: 

1 . Kalpana Chawla' s education and initial career. 

2 . What was Kalpana Chawla's achievement in space and how did she 
describe her experiences? 

3 . Describe her second space-flight. 

4. Describe her last interview. What was her message to children? 

IV. Write an essay on: 

1 . Kalpana Chawla's path to the 'Milky Way' . 

2 . Her grit, dreams and realisation of her dreams . 

Skimming 

Task 1: Go through the following passages A and B. Do not read in 
detail. As you give a cursory glance, keep the following 
questions in mind: 

• What is the main content of both the passages? 

• Which country/countries are involved in each? 

• Which passage deals with a human being and which deals with an animal? 

• Do both events take place in the same decade? 

• Have any names been mentioned in each of the passages? 

• Is there anything common in the achievement of the main characters in 
both the events? 

• Which passage involves training? 

15 



• Which passage involves conducting an experiment? 

• In which passage is there a tragic ending involving loss of life? 

• Which passage talks about a memorial and relates to the present also? 

• Are there any scientific terms used in the passages? 



Passage A: 



LAIKA AND SPUTNIK 2 





Near the end of the 1950s, the USSR was preparing to send a dog into 
orbit above Earth. Scientists in the Soviet Union were sure that organisms 
from Earth could live in space. To demonstrate that, they sent the world's 
second artificial space satellite - Sputnik 2 on November 3, 1957. On 
board was a live mongrel dog named Laika (Barker in Russian), on a life- 
support system. While other animals had made suborbital flights, Laika was 
the first animal to go into orbit. Laika had been a stray dog around three 
years old - rounded up from the streets and trained for space flight. The 
Sputnik 2 was outfitted with life-support systems but was not designed for 
recovery. A harness allowed some movement and access to food and water. 
Electrodes transmitted vital signs including heartbeat, blood pressure and 
breathing rate. Laika captured the hearts of people around the world as the 
batteries that operated her life-support system ran down and the capsule air 
ran out. Life slipped away from Laika a few days into her journey. Later, 
Sputnik 2 fell into the atmosphere and burned on April 14, 1958. 

Today, Laika again captures the hearts of people who see a monument 
erected 40 years after her space flight, by the Russians to honour fallen 
cosmonauts at Star City outside Moscow. The likeness of Laika can be 
seen peeping out from behind the cosmonauts in the monument. 

16 



Passage B: 

THE FIRST INDIAN COSMONAUT 

The manned space programme of the Indian Space Research Organisation 
has depended entirely upon Russia. The first Indian cosmonaut became the 
138 th man into space; he was Squadron Leader Rakesh Sharma, a 35 year 
old Indian Air Force pilot. He spent eight days in space aboard the space station 
Salyut 7. He was launched along with two other Soviet cosmonauts aboard 
Soyuz T -11 on 02 April, 1984. During the flight, Squadron Leader Sharma 
conducted multi-spectral photography of northern India in anticipation of the 
construction of hydroelectric power stations in the Himalayas. Squadron Leader 
Sharma and his backup, Wing Commander Ravish Malhotra, also prepared an 
elaborate series of zero-gravity Yoga exercises which the former practised aboard 
the Salyut 7. He was trained for one- and-a-half years for the eight-day trip. 

He said that the worst moment of his trip was when the Soyuz T -11, 
caught fire while landing. "The space capsule burnt when it re-entered the 

earth's atmosphere the spaceship began to burn off in layers. lean 

still recall it was all so noisy It was quite frightening to bail out of 

a burning spaceship. We had to parachute out over the desert of Kazakhstan". 

How did you arrive at the answers to the following questions? You 
did not read in detail. Yet you were able to arrive at the answers. How 
was this possible? This is by the process of 'skimming'. 

Skimming is used to quickly identify the main ideas of a text. In 
skimming you don't look for specific information. You don't know exactly 
what you are looking for. Therefore you question yourself - who, what, when, 
where! With a questioning mind you direct your eyes down the column of 
print, or in a zig-zag. Look for exact names of people, places, things, ideas 
and numbers. 

When you first start to learn to skim you may see only the words in 
bold type, italics, digits, or capitalised words. Soon you will note new or 
unusual vocabulary. As you become an efficient skimmer your span of 
perception will widen. 

It's a good practice to skim everything after reading the title and first 
paragraph. You may get all the information you want. You generally skim 
everything you intend to read before you make a final decision to read, 

17 



discard, or study the material. For example, before reading the newspaper 
one generally skims through in order to decide what to read. 

Skim all highlighted words and develop a read-skim pattern to use for 
rapid review. Reviewing frequently and rapidly is the best way to memorise (or 
simply remember information) from notes and long text assignments. This is very 
helpful when revising what is already learnt. 

Skimming is done at a speed three to four times faster than normal 

reading. People often skim when they have lots of material to read in a limited 
amount of time. Use skimming when you want to see if an article may be of 
interest. 

There are many strategies that can be used when skimming. Some people 
read the first and last paragraphs. You might read the title, subtitles, 
subheading, and illustrations. Consider reading the first sentence of each 
paragraph. This technique is very useful. 

Task 2: Take the day's English daily. Skim through the paper to have 
an idea of the general contents. Use the above techniques to 
skim. After skimming (1) discuss with your teacher and 
classmates the time taken to skim the whole paper and the 
time taken to read any particular article that interested you 
(2) write down the important headlines that caught your 
attention 

Reading aloud 

Task 1: Read aloud the passage from the lesson, beginning from the 

title 'BON VOYAGE' 'That's exactly what she did', to 

a friend who has not read the lesson. After you finish reading, 
ask questions to your friend to see if he/she has been able to 
comprehend. 

While reading aloud keep an eye on pronunciation - correct articulation 
of sounds, proper stress, intonation, pause, etc. In writing, punctuation plays an 
important role. In speech, the above features take over. Remember, audibility is 
very important when reading aloud to a group. The more you practise reading 
aloud the better it is for your pronunciation. Reading aloud will come in handy 
when you present papers, reports, etc. 

18 



Task 2: Read aloud the paragraph, 'In her last interview follow 

your dreams, ' from the lesson. The teacher will check your 
pronunciation, pause and intonation. 

Task 3: Take turns and read aloud items from the day 's newspaper to 
the class as would be read by a newsreader. 

D. Vocabulary 

I. Look at the following sentences taken from the lesson. 

having practically no money to invest 

She had arranged for a screening of the movie .... 

In her last interview to the press 

in the guest column of a cover story in 'The Week' , featuring .... 

She took part in almost everything, from athletics to dance 

On February 1 st 2003, a breezy blue day over Florida, 

No wonder as many as 28,000 web-sites host information about her. 

Task 1: The words in bold belong to different fields. Put them under 
the different heads. 

Business: 

Computers: 

Media: 

Sports: 

Weather: 

Here are some more examples: 



Business 


Computers 


Media 


Sports 


Weather 


fluctuation 


palmtop 


small screen 


golf 


humid 


stock broker 


hardware 


compere 


polo 


foggy 


stock 
exchange 


password 


yellow 
journal 


billiards 


hurricane 


returns 


menu 


gossip 


squash 


tornado 


inflation 


laptop 


cover story 


javelin 


cloudy 


turnover 


surfing 


thriller 


ice hockey 


freezing 


expenditure 


software 


editorial 


base ball 


windy 


asset 


floppy 


box office 


pole vault 


drizzle 



19 



Task 2: The meanings of the above words are given below. Match the 
words with their meanings. 

A popular game played in America 

Profit; yield 

A disk for recording and storing data 

A game played on horseback 

One who presents programmes 

Very cold 

Violently rotating winds 

Property of a company 

A game played with ball which is hit 
against the walls 

A film with an exciting plot 

A game played by two or four persons 
with small, hard balls, driven with clubs 
into a series of 9 or 18 holes 

A secret code which allows restricted 
entry 

A competitive sport where a light spear 
is thrown 

The main article in a newspaper 

An extremely violent wind or storm 

Spending or using up 

Mild showers 

Hockey played on an icy surface 

Frequent change in market prices 

Rumour 

Jumping over a high bar using a long 
flexible pole 

A journal with sensational news 

Full of fog 



20 



A game played on a table 

Machines and other devices, making up 
a computer 

Damp 

Main article in a magazine 

Television 

Covered with clouds 

A ticket-counter 

The set of systems in the form of 
programs rather than machine parts 

A list of possible actions displayed on 
a computer screen 

One who buys and sells stocks 

Moving from site to site on the Internet 

Place where stock is bought and sold 

A computer, small and light enough to 
be held in one hand 

A continuing rise in prices 

With strong winds blowing 

The amount of business done 

A computer that is portable and small 
enough to be held on one's knees for use : 

Task 3: Use the above words in sentences of your own. 

e. g. When he went through the expenditure column in the ledger, he was 

taken aback. 

He always keeps keying into his laptop. 

The 'Titanic' was a box-office hit. 

Sergei Bubka is the world record holder in pole vault. 

The fishermen have been asked not to venture into the sea as there is 
warning of a hurricane. 

21 



//. Read the following news items: 

Asteroid heading for Earth 

LONDON: A giant asteroid is heading for Earth and could hit it in 2014, US 
astronomers have warned British space monitors. But for those fearing 
Armageddon, don't be alarmed - the chances of a catastrophic collision are 
just one in 909,000. Asteroid "2003 QQ 47" will be closely monitored over the 
next two months. Its potential strike date is March 21, 2014, but astronomers 
say that any risk of impact is likely to decrease as further data is gathered. On 

impact, it could have the effect of 20 million Hiroshima atomic bombs 

Asteroids are chunks of rock left over from the formation of the solar system 
4.5 billion years ago. Most are kept at a safe distance from the Earth in the 
Asteroid belt between Mars and Jupiter. 

Fears allayed 

PARIS: The Earth is not quite so doomed, experts said on Wednesday. Fears 
that a giant asteroid could wack into the planet on March 2 1 , 20 1 4 and plunge 

it into a nuclear winter are misplaced, they said NASA's Jet Propulsion 

Laboratory (JPL), making a preliminary estimate of its orbit, said there was 
a tiny chance - one in only 909,000 - that it would collide with Earth. Around 
1 .2 km across, and hurtling through space at 1 20,000 km per hour, 2003 QQ 
47 would unleash energy equivalent to 

While reading, were you able to understand the meanings of all 
the words? 

How did you try to fix the meanings of most of the words? 

- you already knew the meaning of the familiar words 

- you tried to guess the meaning from the context 

- you referred to a dictionary 

- you asked somebody 

In your extensive reading, when you read the newspaper, a magazine 
or a book, you adopt one or more or all of the above to interpret the meanings 
of words. 

22 



Task 1: Look at the underlined words in the above news items. Their 
meanings are given below, see if you can match the meaning 
with the word. 

afraid an approximate calculation initial 

lumps going in the direction of danger 

removed crash to release suddenly 

Task 2: Look at the words in bold. See if you know the meaning already. 
Otherwise try to guess the meanings of these words. Write down 
the meanings. Check with the dictionary to see if you have got 
it/guessed it correctly. 

Task 3: Look at the words in italics. Refer to the dictionary and find 
the meanings of these words. 

E. Study skills: 

1. In order to improve one's vocabulary it is important to refer to 
the dictionary. The dictionary is referred to for various purposes: 

• to know the spelling 

• to know the meaning 

• to know the part of speech 

• to know the derivatives of a word, e.g. happy - happily, happiness 

• to know the Synonyms and Antonyms 

• to know the use of the word in different contexts 

• to know the correct usage 

concern 1 v.t 1 . to relate to 2. to cause anxiety to Syn. 1 . involve, interest 

2. worry - concerned, concerning 



USAGE - / met the concerned officer and explained my position, is 
wrong. / met the officer concerned and explained my position, is 
right. When concerned means involved or connected, it goes after 
the noun it describes. Placed before the noun it means anxious. 



concern 2 1. n.c a matter of interest 2. n.c/u worry or anxiety 3. n.c a 
firm or company Syn. 2. burden, care 3. enterprise 



23 



Task 1: Refer to a Dictionary and fill in the details in the following 
table. 



Word 


Meaning 


Part of Speech 


Derivatives 


explore 








adventure 








astronomy 








gravity 








universe 









Task 2: Refer to either a Standard Dictionary or a Thesaurus and fill 
in the details in the following table. 



Word 


Synonym 


Antonym 


daring 






tragic 






knowledge 






eager 






risky 







Task 3: Refer to a Dictionary and find the different meanings of the 
following words and how each is used. 

land 

hike 

thirst 

space 

air 

Task 4: Find the difference between 'travel', 'journey' and 'voyage'. 
Refer to a Standard Dictionary and find the correct usage. 
You may have to look up all the three entries. The difference 
in usage will be given under any one entry. 



24 



II. Arvind's younger brother has written a paragraph on Galileo to be 
displayed on the school bulletin board, during the 'Space week'. Arvind 
has edited and drafted it. 

to 
Galileo used look up at the stars through a telescope. When he 

r A saw 

tuned his telescope towards the sky he see that the moon was really a 

A with A 

world covered by mountains and valleys. He looked at Venus, which we 

the A like 

call an evening star, and found that it changed as the moon, and 

A s A found 

sometimes was new, sometime full. He looked at Jupiter and find that it 

had A A 

have four moons. Sometimes those moons grows-dark with the shad-dow of 

A u an the 

Jupiter, je-st as the moon in a-eclipse grows dark with the shadow of 

A A found A 

earth. He saw that Saturn had a number of rings. He have find that the 

s A o 

earth move, which is a fact that people at that time did not kn-ew. 

A A 

His enemies did not like him. 

Fair Draft: 

Galileo used to look up at the stars through a telescope. When he turned 
his telescope towards the sky he saw that the moon was really a world covered 
with mountains and valleys. He looked at Venus, which we call the evening 
star, and found that it changed like the moon, and sometimes was new, 
sometimes full. He looked at Jupiter and found that it had four moons. 
Sometimes those moons grow dark with the shadow of Jupiter, just as the 
moon in an eclipse grows dark with the shadow of the earth. He saw that 
Saturn has a number of rings. He found that the earth moves, which is a fact 
that people at that time did not know. 

Editing and drafting is a process which involves correcting spelling/ 
grammatical/punctuation errors, simplifying/refining the language and leaving 

25 



out unnecessary details. While writing, one tends to make slips and errors. Revising 
what is written helps us improve the draft. This revision which involves editing 
can be done by oneself or with the help of someone. 

Task 1: Correct, edit and draft the following passage. 

Some people feels that the money spent on space travel is the waste. They 
say it could be used to help the poors. It is truth that the poor needs help, But it 
also true that man's knowledge must grew. We has to learn much and more. 
Space travel has opened the doors to new and intresting discoveries. These 
persuit of knowledge is necesary even if it is expensive. 

Some even laugh at space scientists. People has always laughed at new 
ideas an daring esperiments. Galileo was laughed at when he say that the earth 
went round sun. Louis Pasteur was laughed at far saying that smell germs was 
present everywhere, which could be seen threw a microscope. Ultimately Galileo 
and Pasteur proved to be right. 

Task 2: Write a paragraph on whether space travel is necessary. Before 
finalising the draft, correct and edit it. 

F. Grammar 

It is the 21 st of July 1969. 

People are watching a historic moment on television. 

Man was attempting to land on the moon. 

During the final stages the Lunar Module blasted away from the 
Command Module. 

Then, when the Eagle had been briefly hovering at 500 feet above the 
Sea of Tranquillity, Armstrong made up his mind to land. 

In case of sudden emergency, the Eagle would have blasted back into 
orbit to join the Command Module. 

Then they landed on the moon. 

The message came, 'The Eagle has landed' . 

Generations to come will remember Armstrong's words, "That's one 
small step for a man, one giant leap for mankind". 



26 



As soon as he stepped out, Armstrong gave a description of the surface, 

"The surface is fine and powdery It adheres in fine layers to the sides of my 

boots." 

It was evident that no life had existed there before Armstrong and Aldrin 
stepped onto the moon. 

We will be saying down the ages, "Man breathed on the moon". 

Using the moon soil and rocks, man has been conducting several 
experiments for the past few years. 

If man hadn't stepped onto the moon already, we will have been dreaming 
about stepping onto it. 

Look at the following table: 



Tense 


Simple 


Continuous 


Perfect 


Perfect 
Continuous 


Present 


adheres 


are watching 


has landed 


has been 
conducting 


Past 


landed 


was attempting 


had existed 


had been 
hovering 


Future 


will 
remember 


will be saying 


would have 
blasted 


will have 

been 

dreaming 



Now look at the following sentences taken from the lesson: 

A close friend remembers that Chawla often spoke about travelling to 
Mars (Simple Present) 

She graduated from Tagore School. (Simple Past) 

She will always inspire many young women. (Simple Future) 

While she was pursuing her engineering (Past Continuous) 

Her brother Sanjay had enrolled himself in the Karnal flying school. 
(Past Perfect) 

I have felt that connection for the Earth (Present Perfect) 



27 



Now, let us see how the various tenses are used: 



Tense 



Uses 



Simple 
Present 



For habitual actions: I read the newspaper everyday. 



For instantaneous present: (commentaries, 
demonstrations) He bowls from the pavilion end. 



For historical present: Here goes Laika into space. 



Future expressed with certainty: He arrives on the 7" 



To indicate possessions: He has a quartz watch. 



In proverbs: Haste makes waste. 



Simple 
Past 



To refer to past actions/events: I saw the film ten days ago. 



To refer to present time (to show politeness): I wondered 

if I could borrow your bike. 



In conditional clause 2: If I were a bird, I would fly high. 



In reported speech: NASA asked her to join duty. 



Simple 
Future 



To refer to future time or events with certainty: I will go to 

his house tomorrow. 



To refer to ordinary future actions: The count-down will 
begin at 8.00 a.m. tomorrow. 



Task 1: Form pairs, take turns and ask your neighbour the following 
questions: 

a) What do you do in the evenings? 
(I read, play cricket, etc.) 

b) What did you do last week-end? 

(I visited my friend, attended music classes, etc.) 

c) What will you do during the summer holidays? 
(I will go to my village, will learn Karate, etc.) 

Task 2: Fill in the blanks with the suitable tense form of the verbs 
given in brackets, without deviating from the rules given in 
the above table: 



28 



1. Slow and steady (win) the race. 

2. Tomorrow, owing to the bandh, all shops (open) only 

at 6.00 p.m. in the evening. 

3. I (think) I could ask you a favour. 

4. She (have) a new bike now. 

5 (add) a spoon of sugar to the mixture. 

6 . Rekha (sing) well at the competition yesterday. 

7. If I (is) a kite, I would reach the moon. 

8 . The President (leave) for Japan next Friday. 

9. The teacher (ask) me why I was late. 

10. He (visit) his father everyday. 

11. Here (come) Hamlet. 

12. Radha (meet) me day after tomorrow. 



Tense 


Uses 


Present 
Continuous 


To refer to an action in progress at the moment of 
speaking or writing: He is reading the newspaper. 


With 'always' to express anger or irritation: 
He is always disturbing me when I'm studying. 


To refer to future time: They are visiting the planetarium 
next week. 


Past 
Continuous 


To refer to an action in progress in the past: He was 
surfing the net. 


To refer to an action which started before the action in 
the simple past: He was watching cricket when I phoned 
him. 


Future 
Continuous 


To refer to an action as going on some time in the future: 
They will be coming to my house next Sunday. 



29 



Tense 


Uses 


Present 
Perfect 


To refer to an action just completed: He has bought a 

telescope. 


To refer to a past action recollected at the present time: 
I have visited all the tourist spots in Tamilnadu. 


To refer to past actions or events whose results are 
seen in the present: It has rained here. 


Past 
Perfect 


To refer to the earlier of the two past actions: When he 
switched on the computer, the power had failed. 


Future 
Perfect 


To refer to an activity or state extending up to a definite 
point in the future: They will have settled the problem 
next week. 



Tense 


Uses 


Present 
Perfect 
Continuous 


To refer to an action which began in the past and is in 
progress at the present moment: It has been raining 

heavily since last night. 


Past 

Perfect 

Continuous 


To refer to an activity of limited duration in the distant 
past: Last year, he had been pestering his father for a full 
week to give his share of the property. 


Future 

Perfect 

Continuous 


To refer to an activity or state in progress at a definite 
point in the future: Next month by now I will have been 
travelling to North India. 



Task 3: Fill in the blanks in the following sentences with the 
continuous, perfect or perfect continuous form of the verb 
given in brackets: 

1. Tendulkar (bat) since the match started this 

morning. 

2. Shoba always (play) loud music. 

3. I (watch) all his movies. 

4. Tomorrow by now, she (perform) 

on the stage. 

30 



5. Sudha (see) the doctor tomorrow evening. 

6. Look at the progress report. He (pass) the examination. 

7. Saraswathi (finish) her homework. 

8. "What were you doing last evening?" "I (play) tennis at 

the club." 

9. Raghu (ask) his boss for a hike last year. 

10. They (find) a solution tomorrow evening. 

11. Sankar (eat) his breakfast. Let's wait for him. 

12. I (talk) to my mother, when the guests arrived. 

13. The news (reach) them, when he came home. 

14. My father (buy) me a computer tomorrow. 

Task 4: Fill in the blanks in the following sentences using the suitable 
form of the Present Tense: 

1 . This photograph (show) the sun in all its glory. 

2. The scientist (leave) India on the 12 th of January. 

3 . The little girls (have) a toy each . 

4. Joan (finish) her lesson. 

5. The ground is dry. All the water (drain). 

6 . I (bru sh) my teeth every morning and night . 

7. A stitch in time (save) nine. 

8. Radha and Prema (travel) to Tirunelveli the day 

after tomorrow. 

9. Our neighbour's dog always (bark). 

10. The magician (pull) out a rabbit from the hat. 

11. Here (come) Caeser. 

12. Sundar (tour) all over the world in these ten years. 

1 3 . The sun (glow) steadily for more than four billion years . 

14. The sun (demand) everyone's attention now. 

Task 5: Fill in the blanks in the following sentences using the suitable 
form of the Past Tense: 

1. Rani (wash) the clothes this morning. 

2. If I (is) the wind, I would travel everywhere. 

3. Amudha (sleep) when I knocked at the door. 

4. When Usha and Sunitha reached Ananda's house, the guests 
(leave). 

31 



5 . Priya (buy ) an atlas yesterday. 

6. They (hunt) for a new house whole of last October. 

7. I (think) I could give you a lift. 

8. Aruna's mother (tell) her not to go out in the rain. 

Task 6: Fill in the blanks in the following sentences using the suitable 
form of the Future Tense: 

1. The Cabinet (decide) on the bill next week. 

2. Saro (complete) the project next Tuesday. 

3. Viji and Amala (visit) me next week. 

4. Next week by now, I (enjoy) my holiday. 

5. The Republic Day parade (commence) at 6.00 a.m. 

tomorrow. 

G. Writing 

I. Read the following passage: 

Man's eternal romance with the Himalayas 

'Mount Everest conquered, ' 'Tenzing and Hillary climb summit, ' 
'British expedition 's success ' - the news flashed all over the world on 
Wednesday, the 3 rd of June 1953. May 29 th 2003 marks the 50 th anniversary 
of the ascent of Mount Everest by Edmund Hillary and Tenzing Norgay. Their 
feat is still talked about. Though 1 ,200 mountaineers have followed in Hillary 
and Norgay's footsteps and 175 have died in the process, Mount Everest 
continues to challenge and fascinate man. iLseems to have cast an eternal 
spell on mankind - a spell that is both exhilarating and dangerous at the same 
time. Through it all the Himalayas sits like a brooding elephant over several 
thousand kilometres. Its magnificence fills one with awe. Even five decades 
after its conquest, the highest peak in the world continues to lure man. 

The above is a model of a 'paragraph'. What is a paragraph? It is 
either a section of a longer prose piece or a short piece by itself. It has a 
number of sentences strung together relating to one topic. 

While writing a paragraph, remember: 

• A paragraph revolves around one topic or idea only, (the title 
given in the above paragraph) 



32 



• The sentences in the paragraph should be logically connected. In other 
words there should be coherence, (the underlined words) 

• The opening and closing sentences are very important, as they give 
an idea about the topic. The first is the topical sentence and the last 
sums up the topic, (the sentences in italics) 

Task: Using the tips and model given above, write a short paragraph 
on any one of the following topics: 

1 . How I wish I could fly ! 

2 . The invention of the aeroplane by the Wright brothers . 

3 . Save Planet Earth ! 

//. Look at the following sentences: 

Quartz Timekeeping took man to the moon, 
Now Timex brings it back to earth 

This is a slogan advertising Timex quartz watches. The meaning it conveys 
is that - 

The quartz was crucial to the precision of the Apollo moon missions. For 
several years, many manufacturers have struggled to bring the quartz watch within 
the reach of the common man. But none has been able to manufacture a quartz 
watch that's within the buying power of the general public. Now Timex has 
managed to bring the prices of Quartz watches right down to earth. 

(quartz: a hard mineral substance, used in making very exact watches and 
clocks) 

A slogan: 

• conveys a message in a nut-shell 

• is catchy so as to draw immediate attention 

• is brief and to the point 

• promotes a product or a movement 

• employs pun/word-play 

• uses proverbs/sayings in a modified version 

Task 1: Here are some slogans. Match the slogan with the product/ 
movement. 



33 



Slogan 


Product/movement 


Save Planet Earth! 


Opening of a circulating library 


Calling all bookworms ! 


Insurance 


Moonwalk in comfort 


Environmental awareness 


NIC is the best policy 


Torchlight 


The sunbeam in your hand 


Footwear 



Task 2: Form pairs and write slogans for the following: 

1 . Computer 

2. Telescope 

3 . Rainwater harvesting 

4. Campaign against child labour 

H. Occupational competency 

Families flee to West by Balloon 

17, September '79 - by Michael Farr in Bonn 

Two East German families escaped to the West early yesterday by a 
hot-air balloon made out of curtains and bed sheets. The balloon, carrying 
four adults and four children, came down near the town of Naila after a 30- 
minute flight in darkness from East Germany. But the families were not certain 
they had reached the West. While the women and children hid in a barn, the 
men tried to find out where the balloon had landed. Eventually they stopped 
a police car and discovered they were in West Germany. They are the first 
people to escape from East Germany by balloon. The sheets and curtains 
used to make the balloon had been stitched together by the two wives, and 
the hot air for the craft came from four gas cylinders. It was the families' 
second attempt at a balloon escape from East Germany. Naila, with 9,500 
inhabitants, welcomed the families yesterday. The mayor said flats and jobs 
would be found for them. 

The above is an example of a report. When do you report? When 
something interesting or eventful happens and you either witness it or are 
able to gather first-hand information about it, you convey it to others by means 
of a report. 

34 



A report should: 

- be in the form of a narrative 

- be in the past tense 

- include all relevant details 

- focus on one particular event only 

- mention the date and time of occurrence 

- mention the venue 

- mention the facts 

- mention the cause, result, etc. 

Task: Using the model and tips given above, prepare a report on: 

1 . An interesting incident that you witnessed recentiy 

2. Your visit to the Birla Planetarium 

/. Strategic competency 

Two students discuss their beliefs on learning English: 

A : I strongly feel that it is not necessary to learn English. It is enough if 
we speak in our mother- tongue. 

B : I don't think so. You see, especially in a country like ours, where 
we have a number of languages, we need a link language. 

A : I am not convinced. 

B : I think it is necessary, keeping in mind the place English holds in the 
international arena today. In science, technology, industry, 

telecommunication, mass media, space, you name the field and 

there we see how English dominates. I think in order to keep abreast 
with today's world we ought to learn English. 

A : Isn't knowing a few words enough for communication? Even a street 
vendor can speak to a foreign tourist and understand him. 

B : I don't agree with you. For that matter, we don't need words at all 
for communication. Gestures would do. I think it is not enough to 
speak a few words and understand just a little. We should have enough 
command over the English language, in all its aspects. Otherwise 
our communication will not be effective. 

A : How do you say that? 

B : In the highly competitive world, language ability matters. By 
language ability I mean the effective communicative ability which is 
vital for one's survival and success in the present day world. 

A : Still 

35 



And the argument went on and on and on 

Task: Form groups/pairs, and discuss your beliefs on learning 
English. Cite instances and examples to justify your views. 

J. Creative Competency 

I. The lesson 'BON VOYAGE' is a biographical essay in the form of a 
narrative. 

What is an essay? An essay literally means an attempt. It is an attempt 
or a trial in writing a piece of composition. 

Essays are of different types. Some of them are - 

Narrative (narration of some event - a story, incident, accident, etc.) 

Descriptive (description of a place or thing) 

Expository (explaining something - scientific theories, literary topics, 
etc.) 

Imaginative (not based on actual experience - 'If I were ....', 'A Donkey 
tells his tale', etc.) 

Argumentative (presenting a case for and against - 'Is space travel 
necessary?') 

Reflective (ideas or thoughts born out of reflection - philosophical, 
social topics) 

Autobiographical/biographical 

Tips to be remembered while writing an essay: 

• An essay should have a definite theme or purpose. This should be 
the main idea around which supporting ideas revolve. 

• Logical order and coherence should be paid attention to. 

• An essay should be brief and not rambling. 

• The style should suit the purpose, e.g. A light-hearted tone can't be 
used to discuss a tragedy. 

• It should be objective and not too subjective. Though it expresses 
the writer's views, a biased or prejudiced tone should be avoided. 

36 



The structure of an essay: 

It should have a good and catchy introduction, which would lead to the 
main text. The main idea should be high-lighted here. 

The main text should be divided into paragraphs, each dealing with 
one supporting idea. 

It should have a good concluding paragraph, summing up the main idea. 

Before writing an essay: 

One should read a lot in order to be well-informed. 

One should be able to collect information from various sources - books, 
newspapers, magazines, Internet, conversations, observations, etc. 

One should have a collection of anecdotes, quotes, proverbs, etc., which 
would come in handy. 

While writing an essay: 

Think clearly and jot down the main and sub-points. 

Write a rough-draft. 

Read, revise, edit, correct and proof-read it. 

Make a fair draft. 

Task: Read the lesson 'BON VOYAGE' again to serve as a model. 
Keep in mind the above points and write an essay on any one 
of the following: 

1 . If I were to be the first human to visit the Mars. 

2. An autobiography of the moon. 

3. A Space and Science Exhibition held at your school. 

II. The following is an imaginary dialogue between Edmund Hillary and 
Tenzing Norgay, on their way to the summit of the Everest. 

Norgay : Ready? Shall we make a move? 

Hillary : My feet are numb and chill. Why don't you go in the front, 

cutting steps? I'll follow you close behind. 
Norgay : All right. 

(They start moving) 

37 



Norgay : Be careful ! Don't go to your left. Thethincrustisverysoft.lt 

might give way. 
Hillary : I'll be careful. 

(After walking a few hundred feet) 
Hillary : Look here's a tiny hollow. 
Norgay : See what F ve found - two oxygen bottles . 
Hillary : Must have been left behind by Evans and Bourdillion who 

came earlier. 
Norgay : Must be. Let us check if there's any oxygen left. 
Hillary : Scrape off the ice first. 
Norgay : (A sigh of relief on hi s face) We ' re lucky. There ' s still several 

hundred litres left. Should definitely see us through. 
(After some time) 
Norgay : My! Watch your step. Here take my hand. Are you all right? 
Hillary : Yes, I somehow slipped. I think from now on it's going to be 

pretty risky. Do you think it's advisable to continue? 
Norgay : The condition is quite bad. But, as you wish. 
Hillary : Mmm... let's try and keep going. 

A dialogue is a conversation between two people. The tone here is quite 
colloquial and informal. There should be naturalness in speaking. 

Tips to be remembered while writing a dialogue: 

• Put yourself in the place of both the people in the conversation, in order 
to present both their points of view. 

• Give equal representation to both. Let not one person alone monopolise 
the conversation. 

• Pay attention to logical order and coherence. 

• Let not the utterances be too long, unless the situation demands. 

• Let not one speaker keep interrupting the other often. 

• Use apt punctuation marks to express feelings and emotions. 

• Give relevant details alone. 

• Any extra information could be in parenthesis. 

Task: Using the above model and the tips given, write a dialogue on 
any one of the following: 

38 



1 . Between the sun and the moon 

2 . Between Kalpana Chawla and an interviewer (after her first space flight) 

3 . Between yourself and a space scientist 

Self - Evaluation : 

Task 1 : Answer the following questions using the correct form of the 
tenses : 

1. What kind of games do you enjoy? 
I 

2 . When will he tell you about his tour programme? 
He 

3 . When do you get up? 
Generally I 

4. Where did you spend your summer holidays last year? 
I 

5 . Who did you go with? 
I 

6. When will you turn eighteen? 
I 

Task 2 : Replace the words in italics with present continuous or past 
continuous tense of the verbs in capitals : 

1 . I have arranged to TAKE a week's holiday. 

2. I'll SEE him tomorrow. 

3. I can't see you this evening because I plan to GO out. 

Task 3 : Complete the sentences using the perfect tense of the verb in 
brackets : 

1. I don't know your father. I (never meet) him. 

2. He is very tired because he (not sleep). 



39 



POEM 

OFF TO OUTER SPACE 
TOMORROW MORNING 

You can start the Count Down, you can take a last look; 
You can pass me my helmet from its plastic hook; 
You can cross out my name in the telephone book - 
For I'm off to Outer Space tomorrow morning. 

There won't be any calendar, there won't be any clock; 
Daylight will be on the switch and winter under lock. 
I'll doze when I'm sleepy and wake without a knock - 
For I'm off to Outer Space tomorrow morning. 

I'll be writing no letters; I'll be posting no mail. 
For with nobody to visit me and not a friend in hail, 
In solit'ry confinement as complete as any gaol 
I'll be off to Outer Space tomorrow morning. 

When my capsule door is sealed and my space-flight has begun, 
With the teacups circling round me like the planets round the sun, 
I'll be centre of my gravity, a universe of one, 
Setting off to Outer Space tomorrow morning. 

You can watch on television and follow from afar, 
Tracking through your telescope my upward shooting star, 
But you needn't think I'll give a damn for you or what you are 
When I'm off to Outer Space tomorrow morning. 

And when the rockets thrust me on my trans-galactic hop, 
With twenty hundred light-years before the first stop, 
Then you and every soul on earth can go and blow your top - 
For I'm off to Outer Space tomorrow morning. 

- Norman Nicholson 

40 



Glossary and notes: 

Count Down 



daylight will be on the switch 

winter under lock 

I'll doze when I'm sleepy 

in hail 

solit'ry 

gaol 

teacups circling round me 

tracking 

But you needn't think I'll give a 
damn for you or what you are 



the final moments counted 
backwards from 10 to before 
the launch 

there will be a continuous switching 
over from day to night 

there will not be any changing 
seasons 

as there are no fixed day/night hours, 
I'll sleep when I feel sleepy 

within earshot; within hearing 
distance 

alone 

prison 

teacups circling because of lack of 
gravitational pull 

following 

don' t think I will have time to think 
about you 

across galaxies 

to explode in anger 



trans-galactic 
blow your top 
Comprehension questions 

1 . Why does the poet say 'you can take a last look;' and 'You can cross 
out my name in the telephone book -' ? 

2. What does, 'There won't be any calendar, there won't be any clock;' 
signify? 

3. 'Space' and 'confinement' signify concepts that are opposite. Why does 
the poet choose to talk about 'solit'ry confinement' in 'Outer Space'? 

4. Why does the poet say Til give a damn are'? 

41 



Appreciation questions 

1 . What is the place of repetition in this poem? Is it effectively used? 

2. What is the overall tone/mood of the poem? 

a) sadness 

b) jubilation 

c) down-to-earth 

d) humorous 

e) nonchalance 

3 . Simile features twice in the poem. Can you find it? 

4 . Give the rhyme scheme of the poem. 

Answer the following passages with reference to the context: 

1 . I'll be centre of my gravity, a universe of one, 
Setting off to Outer Space tomorrow morning. 

2. And when the rockets thrust me on my trans-galactic hop, 
With twenty hundred light-years before the first stop 

Activity 

1 . Put yourself in the place of an astronaut who will be off to outer space 
tomorrow morning. Jot down the emotions that you would feel. 

2 . When you read or hear about a space shuttle being blown up along with 
the crew, what do you feel? 

Parallel Reading 

Read the following poem: 

WONDERFUL WORLD 

Great, wide, beautiful, wonderful World, 
With the wonderful water round you curled, 
And the wonderful grass upon your breast, 
World, you are beautifully drest. 

The wonderful air is over me, 
And the wonderful wind is shaking the tree, 
It walks on the water, and whirls the mills, 
And talks to itself on the tops of the hills. 



42 



You friendly Earth ! How far do you go, 
With the wheat-fields that nod and the rivers that flow, 
With cities and gardens, and cliffs and isles, 
And people upon you for thousands of miles? 

Ah, you are so great, and I am so small, 

I tremble to think of you, World, at all; 

And yet, when I said my prayers to-day, 

A whisper inside me seemed to say, 

"You are more than the Earth, though you are such a dot: 

You can love and think, and the Earth can not". 

- W.B. Rands 

Compare both the poems. Is there anything different in the tone/ 
mood between the two poems? 

Both the poems are in the form of: 

(a) a song 

(b) an address 

(c) mourning 



43 



UNIT II 

COMPETENCIES 

A LISTENING: Using correct word stress - functional stress and stress 
shift 

B SPEAKING: Conversing at the super-market (buying things, asking the 
price, etc.) 

Conversing over the telephone 

C READEVG: Scanning 

Understanding cohesion/coherence 

D VOCABULARY: Identifying words belonging to different semantic net- 
works/fields 

Using syllabification for reading, spelling and speaking purposes and for 
correct stress pattern 

Using words according to their grammatical function 
E STUDY SKILLS: Referencing - using the library effectively 
F GRAMMAR: Differentiating the three types of 'If clauses 
G WRITING: Writing essays 

Writing reports 

H OCCUPATIONAL COMPETENCY: Presenting non-verbal items 

I STRATEGIC COMPETENCY: Experimenting - trying out different 
learning strategies 

J CREATIVE COMPETENCY: Attempting to write a poem 

Writing short skits 



44 



A. Listening 

I. The teacher will read a conversation between two friends. Listen 
carefully. Pay attention to the manner in which certain syllables are 
stressed or accented in the content words. 

(The teacher reads) 

Task 1: The teacher will read the conversation again. As you listen, 
classify the words on the following basis: 



1 Words ending in -tion 




2 Words ending in -ity 




3 Words ending in -graphy 




4 Words ending in -ical 




5 Words ending in -cian 




6 Words (verbs) ending in -ate 




7 Words (verbs) with two syllables 




8 Words ending in -ic 




9 Words ending in -logy 





Task 2: The teacher will now read these words aloud. Listen carefully 
and mark the stress. 

Where does the stress or accent fall on these words? Are you able 
to derive any rule ? Refer to a good dictionary (Oxford Advanced Learners ' 
Dictionary or Daniel Jones's English Pronouncing Dictionary), to check 
your answer. 

Look at these examples: introduction and eradicate 

in tro due tion 

This word has four syllables: in - tro - due- tion 
-tion is the ultimate syllable 
-due is the penultimate syllable 
-tro is the antepenultimate syllable 
in is the first syllable. 

The stress or accent is on the penultimate syllable. 

45 



in tro 'due tion 




ultimate syllable 

nultimate syllable 
antepenultimate syllable 
first syllable 



e ra di cate 
This word has four syllables: e - ra - di - cate 
-cate is the ultimate syllable 
-di is the penultimate syllable 
-ra is the antepenultimate syllable 
e is the first syllable 
The stress or accent is on the antepenultimate syllable. 



e 'ra di cate 




ultimate syllable 
penultimate syllable 
antepenultimate syllable 
first syllable 



The stress or accent in the case of intro'duction is on the penultimate 

syllable and it is indicated by the mark ' placed on top and before the syllable that 
is stressed or accented. In the case of e'radicate the stress is on the 
antepenultimate syllable. 

Here are some general rules for word stress: 

1 . All word endings like -tion, -cion and -ssion have the stress on the 
penultimate syllable. 

e.g. calculation co'ercion 

communication sus'picion 

preparation pos'session 

edu'eation com'passion 
intro'duction 
rejection 

2. Words with three and more syllables ending in -ity have the stress on the 
antepenultimate syllable. 



46 



e.g. activity elec'tricity 

crea'tivity produc'tivity 

elasticity rela'tivity 

3 . Words ending in -graphy have the stress on the antepenultimate syllable. 

e.g. bi'ography photography 

ge'ography radi'ography 

4. Words ending in -ical have the stress on the antepenultimate syllable. 

e.g. economical geo'graphical 

logical mathe'matical 

political theoretical 

Note: When -ly is added to words ending in -ical there is no change in the 
stress pattern. 

economical economically 

political politically 

5 . Words ending in -cian have the stress on the penultimate syllable. 

e.g. acade'mician mathematician 

elec'trician ma'gician 

politician statistician 

6. Verbs with three syllables and more ending in -ate have the stress on the 
antepenultimate syllable. 

e.g. anticipate 'calculate 

congratulate 'educate 

eradicate participate 

7 . Almost all words ending in -ic have the stress on the penultimate syllable. 

e.g. elastic elec'tronic 

fantastic philo'sophic 

syllabic 

8 . Words ending in -logy have the stress on the antepenultimate syllable. 
e.g. biology ge'ology 

psychology zo'ology 

47 



Task 3: The teacher will say a few words. Listen carefully and write 
them down. The teacher will say the same words again. As the 
teacher says each word, mark the stress. 

II. Functional Stress: 

Listen to the teacher read the following utterance: 

Teacher: Maran, pre'sent (verb) yourself before the principal. He wants 
to give you a 'present (noun). 

The disyllabic word present is used twice in this utterance. When it is used 
as a verb, the stress falls on the second syllable. When it is used as a noun, the 
stress falls on the first syllable. 

Task 1: The teacher will read the following words. Listen carefully to 
the stress in each word. Write against each word whether it is 
a noun/adjective or a verb and mark the stress. 



absent 




absent 




contrast 




contrast 




digest 




digest 




export 




export 




import 




import 




content 




content 




permit 




permit 




produce 




produce 





Task 2: The teacher will read a few sentences. In each sentence, one 
word occurs twice. Listen carefully and write down the words, 
and find the number of syllables in each word. 

Did you notice that the words you have taken are disyllabic words? 
The teacher will read the sentences again. As (s)he reads note the 
difference in stress in the same word in each sentence. Note that when 
the word is used as a noun or an adjective, the stress falls on the first 
syllable. When the same word is used as a verb, the stress falls on the 
second syllable. This is known as 'functional stress'. 

48 



III. Stress Shift: 

Note the shift in stress for the following words. Some derivational suffixes 
affect the stress pattern of the main word. It is very clear from the words 
you find in column 'B\ 



A 


B 


Main word 


With suffix 


'engine 


engi'neer 


'magic 


ma'gician 


mathe'matics 


mathematician 


'music 


mu'sician 


'politics 


poli'tician 


'active 


ac'tivity 


'colony 


colonial 


'science 


scientific 



Note: When -ly is added to those words ending in -ic and/or -ical, there is no 
change in word stress. 

e.g. 



electric 


electrical 


electrically 


elec'tronic 


elec'tronical 


elec'tronically 


mathe'matics 


mathematical 


mathe'matically 


po'etic 


po'etical 


po'etically 



Task 1: 



Task 2: 



Add two more examples to the category: e'lectric-e'lectrical- 
e'lectrically (-ic, -cal, -ly). 

Write down the derivational suffixes against each of the main 
words given below and mark the stress. 



Main word 


With suffix 


mediate 




million 




employ 




beauty 




complex 





49 



Gita 

Priya 

Salesperson 

Priya 

Salesperson 

Priya 



B. Speaking 

I. At the Supermarket: 

The following is a dialogue between Priya and a salesperson: 

(At the provisions section) 

Priya : May I have a kilo of green gram please? 

Salesperson : Sure, Madam. It is Rs. 20/- a kilo. 

Priya : How much is a kilo of basmati rice? 

Salesperson : There are two varieties. This one is Rs. 45/- per kilo and the 
other is Rs. 32/- per kilo. 

Priya : Seems expensive ! Give me a kilo of the second variety. 

Salesperson : Anything else, Madam? 

Priya : Please pack 5 cakes of Hamam soap, 1 loaf of bread, a 

packet of safety pins and 5 chocolate bars. 

Salesperson : Here is the bill, Madam. You can collect the items at Counter 
No. 1. 

Priya : Thank you. 

(At the electrical goods section) 

Gita : Let's take a look at the washing machine. 

Priya : They all look good. Let's take a look at their functions and 

the price. 

This one has a wash tub and a drier and a 2-year guarantee. 

How much does it cost? 

It comes to Rs. 15,000/- 

Don't you have any festival offer? 

You will get a 10% discount and a gift as well, Madam. 



Could you please check the piece for me? Also, please explain 
the various functions. 



Salesperson : Gladly, Madam. 

Task 1: Practise the above dialogue in pairs. 

50 



Task 2: Fill in the blanks and practise the completed dialogue. 



Renjith 

Salesperson 

Renjith 

Salesperson 

Renjith 

Salesperson 

Renjith 

Salesperson 

Renjith 

Salesperson 

Renjith 

Salesperson 

Renjith 

Salesperson 

Renjith 

Salesperson 

II. Over the 



(At the stationery section) 

May I have a file? 

Sure, 

Well, I'm not sure. But I definitely want something cheap. 

No, I don't like plastic files. 

In that case what type do you want? 

How about that folder? 

Which folder? There are many varieties in different colours. 

The red one in the last shelf. How much does it cost? 

All right, I'll take it. Here is Rs. 15/- 

In that case, where do I pay? 
Counter No. 2, please. 
Thank you. 
You are welcome, Sir. 
Telephone: 



The following dialogue is a telephonic conversation between Sheela and 
the receptionist: 



Sheela 

Receptionist 

Sheela 

Receptionist 

Sheela 

Receptionist 

Sheela 

Receptionist 

Sheela 

Receptionist 

Sheela 

Receptionist 



(Rani Nursing Home) 

Hello, I'm calling from 2343486. Is that Rani Nursing Home? 

Yes, it is Rani Nursing Home. 

Can you please tell me if the pediatrician is available now? 

Whom do you want - Dr. Chandran or Dr. Peter? 

I'd like to meet Dr. Peter. He is our pediatrician. 

I'm sorry, Madam. He is not available now. But he'll be here 

in the evening after 6.00. 

Can I have an appointment then? 

Definitely. May I know the child's name? 

He is Prakash and is two years old. 

Please come at 6. 15 p.m. Your token number is 4. 

Thank you. We'll be there at 6.00 p.m. 

Please be on time. 

51 



Task 3: Practise the above dialogue taking roles. 

Task 4: Fill in the blanks and practise the completed dialogue. 

(Kumar Nursing Home) 

Bhaskar : Hello, is that Kumar Nursing Home? 

Receptionist : Good morning, yes it' s Kumar Nursing Home. 

Bhaskar : I'mcallingfrom 

Receptionist : Yes, Dr. Kumar will see patients today. 

Bhaskar 

Receptionist 

Bhaskar 

Receptionist 

Bhaskar 

Receptionist 

Bhaskar 

Receptionist 

Bhaskar 

Receptionist 

Bhaskar 

Receptionist 

Bhaskar 

C. Reading 



He hasn't come yet. He'll be here by 10.00 a.m. 

He usually leaves by 12 noon. 
Can you please fix an appointment? 

Yes, I'll be there at 1 1.00 a.m. 
Have you met the doctor before? 

Yes, 

Could you please give me your hospital card number? 
Please be on the line. The number is B-2205. 
Please bring the card. 



Pre-reading questions: 

1. Have you read stories based on justice, with a twist at the end? Some 
of the world's best-known stories are those of the wise King Solomon. 
Here is one such story. "Two women claim a baby as their own and 
King Solomon decrees that the baby be cut in two. One of them agrees 
while the other gives up her claim so that the baby might live. Thus 
the true mother is identified and the false one is punished. " 

2. Narrate some stories based on justice. You can use the tales ofAkbar 
and Birbal. 

3. Have you witnessed the proceedings in a courtroom? Mention ten 
words and phrases related to courts (e.g. trial, judge, prima facie, 
etc.) 



52 



4. Name any five Shakespearean plays. 

5. Who is the Chief Justice of India ? Mention some eminent personalities 
in the legal field in India. 

THE MERCHANT OF VENICE 

- William Shakespeare 

(The Plot) 

Antonio, a merchant of Venice, and Bassanio are very close friends. 
Bassanio needs money to marry a wealthy lady in Belmont named Portia. He 
borrows money from a cunning, Jewish moneylender called Shylock. Shylock 
lends him a heavy sum but makes Antonio sign a bond that if the money is not 
repaid within three months, he would cut a pound of flesh from Antonio's body. 

Meanwhile, Portia, who has to face many suitors, waits for the arrival of 
her beloved, Bassanio. Before he died, Portia's father, realising her difficulty in 
choosing the right man, had left a test for her suitors. Each man was to be presented 
with three caskets, of gold, silver and lead. Inside one of them was Portia's 
picture, and whoever chose this casket would become her husband. 

The Prince of Morocco chooses the gold casket but finds inside it a skull 
and a warning. The Prince of Aragon chooses the silver casket and finds the 
portrait of an idiot and another warning. Bassanio chooses the lead casket, the 
one with Portia's picture, and claims her as his wife. And his friend Gratiano 
marries Nerissa, Portia's maid. 

As the merry-making commences, there comes a letter from Antonio. His 
ships are lost at sea, and hence unable to pay his debt, he has to keep his word 
with Shylock, and offer him apound of his flesh. Portia offers money but Shylock 
insists on a pound of Antonio's flesh as mentioned in the bond. 

When their husbands leave for Venice, Portia and Nerissa too follow them 
in disguise. Portia disguises herself as a (male) lawyer with Nerrisa as her clerk. 
Portia leaves her house in the care of Jessica, Shylock's daughter who has left 
her father and married Lorenzo . 

All the great men of Venice gather at the Duke's court but Shylock is 

unmoved by their arguments. He feels that the law is on his side and demands 

justice according to the bond. Portia enters the court and changes the entire 

nature of the argument. She speaks not of justice but of mercy. 

53 



Portia wins the battle of wits and Shylock is forced to leave the courtroom 
in defeat. Thanks to the brilliance of Portia's reasoning, the misfortunes of Antonio, 
the merchant of Venice, are finally ended, and the married couples are ready for 
a life of happiness. 

Note: The following is an extract from the court scene, Act IV 

Place: The court of justice in Venice. 
Enter Portia, dressed like a doctor of laws. 

You are welcome: take your place. 
Are you acquainted with the difference 
That holds this present question in the court? 
I am informed thoroughly of the cause. 
Which is the merchant here, and which the Jew? 
Antonio and old Shylock, both stand forth. 
Is your name Shylock? 
Shylock is my name. 
Of a strange nature is the suit you follow; 
Yet in such rule, that the Venetian law 
Cannot impugn you as you do proceed. 
(To Antonio) You stand within his danger, do you not? 
Ay, so he says. 
Do you confess the bond? 
I do. 

Then must the Jew be merciful. 
On what compulsion must I? Tell me that. 
The quality of mercy is not strain' d 
It droppeth as the gentle rain from heaven 
Upon the place beneath. It is twice blessed: 
It blesseth him that gives and him that takes: 
' Tis mightiest in the mightiest; it becomes 



DUKE 



PORTIA 

DUKE 
PORTIA 
SHYLOCK 
PORTIA 



ANTONIO 

PORTIA 

ANTONIO 

PORTIA 

SHYLOCK 

PORTIA 



54 



SHYLOCK 

PORTIA 
BASSANIO 



The throned monarch better than his crown; 

His sceptre shows the force of temporal power, 

The attribute to awe and majesty, 

Wherein doth sit the dread and fear of kings; 

But mercy is above this sceptred sway, 

It is enthroned in the hearts of kings, 

It is an attribute to God himself; 

And earthly power doth then show likest God's 

When mercy seasons justice. Therefore, Jew, 

Though justice be thy plea, consider this 

That, in the course of justice none of us 

Should see salvation; we do pray for mercy, 

And that same prayer doth teach us all to render 

The deeds of mercy. I have spoke thus much 

To mitigate the justice of thy plea, 

Which if thou follow, this strict court of Venice 

Must needs give sentence 'gainst the merchant there. 

My deeds upon my head! I crave the law, 

The penalty and forfeit of my bond. 

Is he not able to discharge the money? 

Yes, here I tender it for him in the court; 

Yea, twice the sum, if that will not suffice, 

I will be bound to pay it ten times o'er, 



PORTIA 

SHYLOCK 

PORTIA 



I pray you, let me look upon the bond. 
Here 'tis, most reverend Doctor, here it is. 
Shylock, there's thrice thy money offer'd thee. 



PORTIA 



Why, this bond is forfeit; 

55 



And lawfully by this the Jew may claim 

A pound of flesh, to be by him cut off 

Nearest the merchant's heart. Be merciful. 

Take thrice the money; bid me tear the bond. 
SHYLOCK : There is no power in the tongue of man 

To alter me. I stay here on my bond. 
ANTONIO : Most heartily I do beseech the court 

To give the judgment. 
PORTIA : Why then, thus it is: 

You must prepare your bosom for his knife. 
SHYLOCK : O noble judge! O excellent young man! 

PORTIA : Therefore, lay bare your bosom. 

SHYLOCK : Ay, his breast - 

So says the bond: doth it not, noble judge? 

"Nearest his heart;" those are the very words. 
PORTIA : It is so. Are there balance here to weigh The flesh? 

SHYLOCK : I have them ready. 
PORTIA : Have by some surgeon, Shylock, on your Charge, 

To stop his wounds, lest he do bleed to death. 
SHYLOCK : Is it so nominated in the bond? 
PORTIA : Itisnotsoexpress'd, but what of that? 

'Twere good you do so much for charity. 
SHYLOCK : I cannot find it; 'tis not in the bond. 

PORTIA : A pound of that same merchant' s flesh is thine. 

The court awards it, and the law doth give it. 
SHYLOCK : Most rightful judge! 

PORTIA : And you must cut this flesh from off his breast. 

56 



The law allows it, and the court awards it. 

SHYLOCK : Most learned judge! A sentence! Come, prepare. 

PORTIA : Tarry a little; there is something else. 

This bond doth give thee here no jot of blood; 

The words expressly are "a pound of flesh:" 

Take then thy bond, take thou thy pound of flesh; 

But, in the cutting it, if thou dost shed 

One drop of Christian blood, thy lands and goods 

Are, by the laws of Venice, confiscate 

Unto the state of Venice. 



SHYLOCK 
PORTIA 



Is that the law? 

Thyself shaft see the act; 

For, as thou urgest justice, be assured 

Thou shalt have justice, more than thou desir'st. 



SHYLOCK : I take this offer then: pay the bond thrice, 

And let the Christian go. 
BASSANIO : Here is the money 
PORTIA : Soft! 

The Jew shall have all justice. Soft! No haste: 

He shall have nothing but the penalty. 

William Shakespeare (1564-1616) was born at Stratford- on- Avon and was 
educated at the free Stratford Grammar School. There is no authentic 
documentation of his early life. He married Anne Hathaway in 1582 and 
moved to London in 1586 to become an actor, poet, dramatist and theatre 
manager. His well-known comedies are A Midsummer Night's Dream, The 
Merchant of Venice and Much Ado About Nothing, while his outstanding 
tragedies are Hamlet, King Lear, Othello and Macbeth, among many more. 



57 



Glossary: 




difference 


/'dlfrEns/ 


Jew 


/dZu:/ 



stand forth 1st Gnd f C : T / 

strange nature /strelndZ 'neltLE/ 



dispute 

A race who presently live in 
Israel. During Shakespeare's 
times, the Jews were ruthless 
moneylenders and were hated by 
the Christians. They hated the 
Christians too. 

come forward 

unusual because he demands a 
pound of flesh even when he is 
offered ten times the original sum 
of money 



impugn 


/Im'pju:n/ 


oppose or resist 


ay 


/al/ 


yes 


bond 


/bBnd/ 


agreement 


strain'd 


/ strelnd/ 


forced 


twice blessed 


/twals blest/ 


Mercy has a double blessing. It 
blesses him that gives and him that 
receives it 


it becomes 


his crown 


The King earns greater respect 
when he is merciful. 


temporal 


/'tempErEl/ 


worldly 


His sceptre . . . . 


. . fear of kings 


The king's sceptre (royal staff) is 
a symbol of his earthly power and 
he is feared. 



But mercy God himself 



And earthly power. . seasons justice 



seasons 



/si : znz/ 



But mercy is above this earthly 
power. It resides in the hearts of 
kings and is an attribute of God. 

Earthly power is revealed like 
God's power when justice is 
tempered with mercy. 

tempers, strengthens 



58 



in the course 


of justice 


if strict justice were to take its 








course 


mitigate 




Artrtlgelt/ 


lessen 


I crave the law 




I pray for what the law entitles me 

to. . . 

give up as penalty for doing 


forfeit 




Zf3:fEbf 








something wrong 


suffice 




/sVfals/ 


be sufficient 


beseech 




Msi:tl/ 


earnestly ask for 


nominated 




/"nBmlneltld/ 


mentioned 


tarry 




rtGrU 


wait 


expressly 




/lk!spresll/ 


directly shown 


confiscate 




/"kBnflskelt/ 


take or seize 


soft 




/sBft/ 


wait 



Choose the appropriate synonyms of the italicised word from the options 
given. 

1. 



2. 



3. 



//. 



1. 



2. 



Though justice be thy plea, consider this. 

(a) argument (b) request (c) support (d) quest 

I crave the law the penalty and forfeit of my band. 

(a) lose (b) withdraw (c) continuation (d) implement 

If that will not suffice, I will be bound to pay it ten times, 
(a) continue (b) suffer (c) work (d) be enough 

I do beseech the court. 

(a) order (b) implore (c) persuade (d) ask 

Thy lands and goods are, by the laws of Venice, confiscate. 
(a) take away (b) give (c) remain (d) enforce 

Choose the appropriate antonyms of the italicised word from the 
options given. 

His sceptre shows the force of temporal pow r er. 
(a) spiritual (b) limited (c) temporary (d) strong 

I have spoken thus much to mitigate the justice of thy plea, 
(a) reduce (b) increase (c) militate (d) annual 

59 



3 . This strict court of Venice. . . 

(a) rigid (b)big (c) strong (d) lenient 

4. There is no power in the tongues of man to alter me. 
(a) argue (b) change (c) fix (d) frighten 

5 . The Venitian law cannot impugn you. 

(a) question (b) stop (c) acquit (d) convict 

Comprehension: 
I. Level I 

1 . What was the agreement between Antonio and Shy lock? 

2. Why did Portia's father leave a test for the suitors? 

3 . Why was Antonio unable to pay his debt? 

4. Who was Nerissa and whom did she marry? 

5 . How, according to Portia, is mercy "twice blessed"? 

II. Level II 

1 . Does Portia come across to you as a modern woman? Give reasons. 

2. What are the problems and issues involved in money lending and 
borrowing? 

///. Answer the following questions in a paragraph each: 

1 . How is Shylock's character revealed in this scene? 

2 . How does Portia turn the argument against Shy lock? 

IV. Write a short essay on - 

The qualities of mercy as expressed by Portia. 

Scanning: 

Scanning is going through a text quickly with a view to looking or searching 
for a specific piece of information. Looking through a telephone directory to 
locate a particular phone number is an exercise in scanning. Quite often there is 
a link between skimming and scanning for readers skim a passage for a general 
idea of its content and then scan it for specific information. 

60 



Skimming involves looking through a text quickly to derive the gist of 
something. It involves a degree of inference and interpretation. In skimming, the 
reader takes a quick look at the passage by allowing his/her eyes to wander over 
the text to get a general, superficial idea of the content which will help him/her 
decide if the material needs to be read carefully and intensively. 

Discuss the following questions in groups: 

• How do you read a newspaper? 

• How do you read an important lesson in History, English or Science? 

• Do you read a storybook and a textbook in an identical manner? 

• What do you do when you want to find out the timing of a TV serial from 
the Newspaper? Do you skim or scan? 

Task: Scan the following passage and answer the questions given 
below. 

Mysterious Lake Vostok 

(from The Hindu dated 16-08-2003) 



Lake Vostok is about 250 kilometres long and 40 kilometres wide 
making it one of the largest lakes. But nobody has yet touched its waters. This 
is because it lies under almost four kilometres of ice, in the centre of Antarctica, 
below Russia's Vostok Station. Surprisingly, its water is not frozen. Heat from 
the earth's interior, and the insulating properties of the thick blanket of ice 
above it, keep the water in a liquid state. 

Though the existence of the lake was suspected since the 1970s, Russian and 
British scientists using radar technology confirmed it only in 1996. 



Answer the following questions: 

1 . Where is Lake Vo stok? 

2 . Who confirmed the existence of the lake? 

3 . What technology was used to confirm the existence of the lake? 

4. What keeps its waters in a fluid state? 

Cohesion and Coherence: 

Cohesion refers to the links or connection between successive clauses 

and sentences in a text. 

61 



Look at these two examples: 

• Sunitha is a clever student. She gets good marks in all subjects . 

Here the pronoun "she" provides the link or connection between these 
two sentences. 

• He reached the railway station very late. So he missed the train. 

Here the conjuction "so" provides the connection between these two 
sentences. 

Coherence is the reader's understanding or perception that a text 
(paragraph or essay) is logical and meaningful. 

Look at this example: 

• Shobha is a clever student. She likes to wear a gold watch. She gets good 
marks in all subjects. Her mother is a teacher. She watches TV for long 
hours. 

Is there any coherence in this example? Are the sentences logically and 
meaningfully connected to one another? Why? 

Task 1: Given below are eight jumbled sentences. Arrange them 
logically and meaningfully so as to form a paragraph. Retain 
sentences one and eight. 



WHERE ARE OUR ATHLETES? 



How much importance is given to sports in our country? 

Adequate facilities and incentives like scholarships and jobs are not given 
to them. 

It is sad to note that India is yet to produce world class athletes. 

One of the major reasons for this sad situation is the fact that many 
educational institutions do not give strong support to their sports persons. 

In spite of its huge population there are very few prominent and notable 
athletes in our country. 

Besides, our athletes get very little exposure, both at the national and 
international levels. 

62 



• But in countries like USA, UK and France athletes receive a lot of support 
and encouragement from their schools and colleges. 

8 . If India is to succeed in sports at the international level and produce athletes 
like Anju George and P.T Usha, it has to do a lot to sports persons. 

Task 2: Given below are seven jumbled sentences. Arrange them 
logically and meaningfully so as to form a paragraph. Retain 
sentences one and seven. 



THE POWER OF GARLIC 



1 . The power of garlic is widely discus sed today by the medical community. 

Once cholesterol levels are lowered cardiac risks are also reduced. 

There is increasing evidence that garlic can also lower cholesterol levels. 

Garlic thus proves to be an inexpensive but wonderful medicine. 

Today doctors tell us to include garlic in our diet in some form. 

Current studies tell us that if you take garlic every day your chances of 
getting affected by stomach cancer and heart diseases are comparatively 
less. 

7 . It may smell bad, but it can save your life ! 

Task 3: Given below are nine jumbled sentences. Arrange them 
logically and meaningfully so as to form a paragraph. Retain 
sentences one and nine. 



THE GREAT INDIAN DESERT 



1 . The only desert in India is the Great Indian Desert in Rajasthan. 
The desert has extreme climate. 
But during the day when the sun is shining it is very hot. 
To its east are the Aravalli Hills and to the south are the plains of Gujarat. 
It is also called the Thar Desert. 

This means that the summers are very hot and the winters are very cold. 

63 



• At night, the sand gets cold very quickly and the desert turns cold too. 

• And it stretches further west into Pakistan. 

9 . Very little rain falls here and so it is an extremely dry region. 

D. Vocabulary 

I. Words belonging to different semantic fields: 

Look at the following words taken from the lesson: 

merchant, money-lender, bond, debt 

These words are normally used in the field of commerce and business. 

Taskl: Look at the following words and classify them according to 
the following fields: 

(i) religion e.g. worship (ii) computer e.g. Internet (iii) sports e.g. match 

(iv) medicine e.g. surgeon (v) cooking e.g. roast (vi) politics e.g. vote 



Internet 


diabetes 


temple 


surf 


church 


century 


fried 


penalty 


tasty 


laboratory 


pills 


priest 


surgeon 


campaign 


wicket 


match 


umpire 


worship 


election 


contest 


manifesto 


candidate 


edible 


franchise 


download 


barbecue 


faith 


web- site 


innings 


ballot 


veto 


typhoid 


culinary 


boil 


paediatrician 


penicillin 


roast 


decathlon 


vote 


gambit 



Task 2: Pick out the words from the lesson belonging to the semantic 
field, 'law', e.g. court. 

II. Syllabification: 

Listen to the following words and classify them according to the number 

of syllables in each word. 

64 



basket 


rain 


introduction 


sister 


educate 


monument 


church 


brother 


college 


eradicate 


river 


birth 


identical 


possibility 


certificate 


biography 


canteen 


majestic 


preparation 


unethical 


university 


development 


believe 


thoughts 



write 
blast 



daughter 
doctor 



Words can be divided according to the number of syllables in them: 

Monosyllabic words (words with only one syllable): 

first chair lake stir 

call drove first bright 

Disyllabic words (words with two syllables): 

divide river across further 

corner reject teacher typist 

Trisyllabic words (words with three syllables): 

multiply magazine calendar resemblance educate 

calculate headmistress computer expensive logical 

Tetrasyllabic words (words with four syllables): 

eradicate liberation political calculation activity 

engineering population electronic biology geography 

Pentasyllabic words (words with five syllables): 

electricity biological electrically administrator mathematical 
sensitivity anticipated participated inhumanity disability 

Task 1: Give more examples for each category (mono-, di- and 
trisyllabic words) and mark the stress as well. 

Task 2: Mention two words which have more than five syllables 
(polysyllabic words). 

e.g. autobiographical 

Task 3: Read carefully the extract from 'The Merchant of Venice ' and 
choose words for mono-, di- and trisyllabic words. 

65 



III. Words with different grammatical functions: 

Look at the following sentences taken from the lesson: 

Portia and Nerissa too follow them in disguise. 

Portia disguises herself as a lawyer. 

See how the word 'disguise' is used as a noun in the first sentence and 
as a verb in the second sentence. The same word is used with different 
grammatical functions. 'Disguise' is a noun. 'Disguises' is the inflectional suffix of 
the noun 'disguise' . We have a number of words whose forms are the same. The 
origin may be different. They have different grammatical functions in different 
contexts with different meaning. 

Note: The following words may be used as verbs, nouns and/or adjectives or 
adverbs. 

1. bark: 

The barks of certain trees are used as medicine, (noun) 
Dogs bark at strangers, (verb) 

2. date: 

Dates are good for health, (noun) 

Can you postpone the meeting to a later datel (noun) 

3. tear: 

When she heard that she had won the first prize she had tears in her eyes. 

(noun) 

He usually tears all letters after reading them, (verb) 

4. bank: 

Madurai is on the banks of the Vaigai. (noun) 

Most banks in this area are computerised, (noun) 

It is unfortunate that most students bank on market guides while preparing 

for their examinations, (verb) 

5. file: 

Where is my personal/He? (noun) 

File all these papers alphabetically, (verb) 

6. sign: 

Did you notice the signl (noun) 
Sign the papers, (verb) 

66 



7. leave: 

Can you please grant me medical leave for ten days? (noun) 
Please leave the hall immediately after the programme, (verb) 

8. live: 

This is a live telecast, (adjective) 

Not many people live in extremely dry areas, (verb) 

9. play: 

The play was suspended because of rain, (noun) 

Hamlet is considered the best play of Shakespeare, (noun) 

Children love to play for long hours, (verb) 

10. train: 

The train was late by two hours, (noun) 

Students trained in communication skills face interview boards confidently. 

(verb) 

Task: Use the following words in sentences of your own. 

break (noun and verb) 

free (verb, adjective and adverb) 

face (noun and verb) 

need (noun and verb) 

park (noun and verb) 

waste (noun, verb and adjective) 

exhibit (noun and verb) 

convert (noun and verb) 

direct (adjective and verb) 

fly (noun and verb) 

E. Study Skills 

(Referencing Skills - Using a Library): 



"Some books are to be tasted, others to be swallowed, and some few to 
be chewed and digested; that is, some books are to be read only in parts; 
others to be read, but not curiously; and some to be read wholly, and with 
diligence and attention." Francis Bacon "Of Studies " 

67 



Discuss the following in groups: 

• How often do you visit your school library? 

• How many books (apart from your textbooks) do you read in a month? 

• Name any two major libraries that you have visited. 

Note: Libraries classify books following the Dewey decimal system or the 
Library of Congress System. 

A . The Dewey decimal system classifies books under ten major 
categories: 

000 General Works 

1 00 Philosophy and Psychology 

200 Religion 

300 Social Sciences 

400 Language 

500 Natural Sciences and Mathematics 

600 Technology and Applied Sciences 

700 Fine Arts 

800 Literature 

900 Geography and History 

B . The Library of Congress system classifies books under twenty major 
headings: 



A 


General Works 


B 


Philosophy, Psychology and Religion 


C 


General History 


D 


World History 


E-F 


American History 


G 


Geography and Anthropology 


H 


Social Sciences 


J 


Political Science 


K 


Law 


L 


Education 


M 


Music 


N 


Fine Arts 


P 


Language and Literature 


Q 


Science 



68 



R Medicine 

S Agriculture 

T Technology 

U Military Science 

V Naval Science 

Z Bibliography and Library Science 

The three important sections of a library are: 

(i) The Reference section where Dictionaries, Encyclopedias, Yearbooks, 
Atlases and Gazetteers are kept; 

(ii) The Stack where books are kept; and 

(iii) The Journal Section where journals, both current and back issues, are 
kept. 

Searching an online catalogue: 

Most libraries have an online catalogue of holdings (e.g., books, journals, 
electronic publications and audio- visual materials) available with them. An online 
catalogue is a list of the materials available in the library, and this list can be 
accessed through the computer. You can make use of the online catalogue to 
locate books and other materials. 

How will you use the online catalogue? The most common ways of locating 
a book are by (i) author's name; (ii) title; and (iii) subject. If you type the author's 
name, e.g., Shakespeare, William, the computer produces a list of all works 
written by Shakespeare that are available in that library. Here is another example: 
If you type Tagore, Rabindranath, the computer will produce a list of all works 
written by Tagore (Rabindranath) that are available in that library. Note that you 
have to enter the surname first (e.g., Shakespeare, William or Tagore, 
Rabindranath or Einstein, Albert). If you enter the surname alone, e.g., Tagore, 
the computer will produce a list of all authors whose surname is Tagore and 
there are many Tagores in India. 

If you are not sure of the author's name, you can enter the title of the 

work. For example, if you enter Gitanjali, the computer displays all details 

concerning Gitanjali, a collection of poems written by Tagore. If you are neither 

sure of the author's name nor the title, you can enter the subject word, and the 

69 



computer will display all titles related to that subject. For example, you want to 
refer to Abdul Kalam's book Wings of Fire: An Autobiography and you do 
not know either the author's name or the title. If you type "wings" or "fire" the 
computer will show a list of all titles that are related to "wings" or "fire". 

Yet another way of searching is by using the Library Accession Number. 
Once you enter the Library Accession Number the computer displays all relevant 
details of that book. 

Apart from the online catalogue, you can use the card catalogue. Books in 
a card catalogue are usually listed by author, title and subject. Note that these 
cards are arranged alphabetically, and it is easy to locate either an author or a 
book. 

Both the online and card catalogues supply us with all relevant details, 
namely, the author, the complete title, the place of publication, the publisher's 
name, the year of publication, Accession Number, ISBN (International Standard 
Book Number) and in some cases the exact location of the book in the library. 
The online catalogue will also inform us if anyone has borrowed a particular 
book and when he/she will return it. 

Here is a sample entry from an online catalogue: 



AUTHOR: Michael Lewis 

TITLE: The English Verb 

IMPRINT: London: Language Teaching Publications, 

1986. 

CALL NUMBER: 425.52 LEW 

LOCATION COPY Status 

Stack #1 In Library 

PHYSICAL FEATURES: 180 p.: 20 cm. 
SUBJECT, : Grammar 
LC CARD: 84251 
ISBN: 81-85986-11-8 



70 



Here are two sample entries from a card catalogue: 
Type: 1 



SHAKESPEARE 

Othello 

87151 



822.33 T7 Sha 



Ace No 



Call No 



Type: 2 



Call No 



821. 954 Tag G.5 



Tagore (Rabindranath) 
Gitanjali: Song Offerings 
Macmillan 1977 



27434 



Tasks: 



2. 
3. 
4. 



5. 
6. 



Ace No 

What system of classification does your library use - Dewey decimal system 

or the Library of Congress system? 

Find out the titles of Shakespeare's works that are available in your library. 

Copy down any sample entry from an online catalogue. 

Find out the Call Number and the Accession Number of the following 

books in your library : 

The Wings of Fire by Abdul Kalam 

My Experiments with Truth by MK Gandhi 

What sort of books are kept in the Reference Section of your School 

Library? Why? 

Visit the major libraries in your city/town and write a paragraph on your 

visit. 



71 



F. Grammar 

If clauses (conditional clauses): 

When Solonia asks Shylock why he should be so particular about the 
pound of flesh, Shylock says, "If you prick us we will bleed, 

If you tickle us we will laugh, 
If you poison us we will die, 
If you wrong us we will revenge." 

Look at the structure of these sentences. 

They are 'If Clause -Type I' 

Note: There are three types of "If clauses" or conditional clauses. 

Type I: If you play well you will win the match. 

Condition: If you play well (Simple Present Tense) 
Result : you will win the match (Simple Future Tense) 

Structure: If /unless + Present Simple + (Main) Future/Modal 

e.g. 

If it rains, they will cancel the meeting. 

If you study well, you will get a seat in the medical college. 

If you walk fast, you will catch the train. 

If Bassanio chooses the right casket, he will marry Portia. 

Negative Form: 

If you do not play well, you will not win the match. 
Unless you play well, you will not win the match. 

If you do not study well, you will not get a seat in the medical college. 
Unless you study well, you will not get a seat in the medical college. 

In these sentences, the conditional clauses represent open conditions, that 
is, conditions that may or may not be fulfilled. Sometimes this type is labelled as 
probable condition. 

Type II: If it rained, they would cancel the magic show. 
Condition: If it rained (Simple Past Tense) 
Result : They would cancel the magic show (would + Simple 
Present Tense / Conditional Tense.) 

72 



Structure: If/unless + Past + (Main) would 

Note: Type II sentences refer to the present or future events; they may be 
unreal or hypothetical (imaginary). The condition may be theoretical, couched in 
unreality and improbability. This type is known as hypothetical conditional clause. 

e.g. 

Ravi would go to Chennai, if he had time. 

How would you go to the match, if it rained heavily? 

Type III: If you had played well, you would have won the match. 

Condition: If you had played well (Past Perfect Tense) 
Result : You would have won the match (would + have + past 

participle of the verb / Perfect Conditional.) 

Implication: You did not play well. Therefore, you did not win 

the match. 

Structure: If + Past perfect + would, should, could, might + perfect 

Note: Type HI sentences refer only to past unreality and what is contrary to past 
fact. It is totally hypothetical. 

e.g. 

If you had studied well, you would have got a seat in the medical college. 

Had you studied well, you would have got a seat in the medical college. 

If you had walked fast, you would have caught the train. 
Had you walked fast, you would have caught the train. 

If Shylock had accepted the money, there would not have been any 
problem. 

Had Shylock accepted the money, there would not have been any problem. 

Task 1: Fill in the blanks with the suitable forms of the verbs given in 
brackets. 

1 . If you play well you (include) in the school team. 

2 . If you (answer) all the questions you would have got high marks . 

3 . If she does not submit the application before Monday she 

(not join - negative form) the hostel. 

4 . If she (take) the medicine regularly, she will be all right within a 

week. 

73 



5 . Unless you start now you (catch) the train. 

6. Iflwereyoul (accept) the challenge. 

7 . If you post the letter today it (reach) New Delhi on Thursday. 

8 thecaptain (win)thetoss we would have batted first. 

9. If I get above 98% I (join) IIT, Chennai. 

10. Ifyou had taken my advice, you (lost) the money. 

11. How they (manage) if there is no electricity for two 

days? 

12. If you had come on time you (meet) the doctor. 

13. If Bassanio had not chosen the right casket he (marry) Portia. 

14. Unless Kavitha attends the drama rehearsal she (include - 

negative form) in the drama troupe. 

1 5 . What would have happened to the patient if the doctor (arrive - 

negative form) on time? 

Task: Complete the following. 

1 . What would you do if you were the Prime Minister of India? 

Write a short paragraph. The first sentence is already given. Add five more 
sentences. 

"If I were the Prime Minister of India I would make primary education 
compulsory." 

2. What would you do if you were to win rupees one crore in the 'Master 
mind Quiz Competition' . 

Write a short paragraph. The first sentence is already given. Add five more 
sentences. 

"If I were to win rupees one crore in the 'Master mind Quiz Competition' , 
I would buy a big house for my parents." 

74 



G. Writing 
I. Essay Writing: 

Task 1: Develop the following hints into an essay of about 400 words: 
Title: The role of women in modern India 

I. Introduction: 

What is the status of women in India today? 

Ours is a male-dominated (patriarchal) society 

Women are treated as second class citizens (denied equal rights) 

II. Body: 

• Empowerment of women: 

Women should be educated 

They should be encouraged to take up jobs 

With education and employment they become independent and 

confident 

• The Changing Scenario: 

More and more women are getting educated 

Women compete with men in many fields 

More and more women take up positions and jobs such as 

administrators, pilots, engineers, IT professionals, etc. 

• Programme of Action: 

Self-help groups and Mathar/Mahalir Sangams to be established/ 
promoted. Fight against the evils of illiteracy, dowry system and 
female infanticide. Women should be encouraged to play active 
part in politics and nation-building 

III. Conclusion: 

Both men and women should work for the empowerment of women 

When women are empowered, the home and the nation develop and 
prosper 

Task 2: Develop the following hints into an essay of about 400 words: 

Title: Caring for the elderly 



75 



I. Introduction: 

Who are the elderly people? What is their age group? 

What is geriatrics? Geriatrics is that branch of medicine concerning illnesses, 
health, matters, etc., of old people. 

II. Body: 

• What are the needs of the elderly? 

Physical-emotional-medical 

Need food, shelter and clothing 

But more importantly need love, caring and understanding 

• What are their problems? 

Physical-emotional-medical 

Their biggest problem is loneliness and being left out and sidelined 

• What can we do for them? 

Take care of their physical and medical needs 

Most importantly spend time with them and listen to them 

• Need for trained counsellors in this area 

III. Conclusion: 

The elderly are an important section of our society 

It is our duty to take care of them 

We should not forget that all of us will one day become old 

Task 3: Write an essay on any one of the following topics: 

1 . The impact of cable television on the youth 

2 . Advantages of rain water harvesting 

Follow the procedure given below: 

• Brainstorming and collecting ideas from various sources including the 
Internet 

• Sorting the ideas 

• Organising them logically and meaningfully 

• Expanding them into an es say in the form of four or five paragraphs 

• Draft I - correction (preferably by classmates/parents) 

• Draft II - revision (by teacher) 

• Final Draft 

76 



II. Report Writing: 

Look at this report from The Hindu dated 23-08-2003 titled 
"Alleppey Exp. Derails at Erode, trains delayed": 



Taskl: Discuss this report in 
groups and answer the 
following questions: 

1. Why has this news been 
reported in the newspaper? Is it 
significant? 

2 . What is the objective/purpose of 
this report? 

3 . What kind of language has been 
used? Active or passive voice? 
Direct or indirect speech? First 
person or third person account/ 
narration? Why? 

4 . Have the facts been presented in 
a clear and accurate manner? 

5. Have all significant facts and 
details (Where, when and how 
did the accident take place, etc.?) 
been included in this report? 



500 children 

take part in 

painting contest 

By Our Special Correspondent 

CHENNA1, NOV. 14. "It W35 a splash of 
colour as their imagination knew 
no boundaries. With spirits soar- 
ing high as it was their day, chil- 
dren from various city schools 
tool; part in a 'stamp design com- 
pel ition', organised by the De- 
partment of Posts at the 
Dakshina Bharat Hindi Prachar 
Sanaa at T. Nagar here. 

The two-hour all-India contest 
on the theme 'My village /My 
town /My city' was open to all 
students aged up to IT. 

The selected painting is likely 

to be released as a postage stamp 

and first-dav cover coinciding 

1 with e\e Children's day in Z0O4. 

1 Nearly 5QO children took part hi 

1 today's competition. 

According to R, Anajid, Senior 
Superintendent of Post Offices, 
, Chennai City Central Division, 
the first prize at the national level 
; was won by a student from Tamil 
!\ ! adu :n 2001 and a stamp was 
! issued. Coinciding with the Chil- 
■ tlren's Day celebration today, the 
i department released a comment- 
1 orative stamp in the denomina- 
tion of Rs. 5 in honour of the 



What is a report? 



Reports are accurate and objective descriptions or accounts of significant 
events which could be political, social and academic. These events are significant 
in the sense that they attract a lot of attention, either positively (example: India 
winning a cricket match against Australia) or negatively (example: A train accident 
in which many are killed). The most important aspect of report writing is that it 

77 



should be accurate and objective. Therefore, the report writer has to personally 
collect, check and verify the facts or collect the facts from authentic and 
reliable sources. 

In report writing the language should be simple and clear, for the purpose 
is to convey information accurately. It is better to present the report from a third 
person point of view using the passive voice. The use of the third person point 
of view and the passive voice will ensure that the report is objective. 

Note that there are also informal reports which are personal and subjective. 

Task 2: Imagine you are the correspondent of an English Newspaper 
called 'People's Paper'. Write a report of the court scene in 
'The Merchant of Venice' to the newspaper. Sentences 1, 2, 9 
and 10 are given here. Add the remaining sentences. 

1 . Last week in Venice, Italy there was an interesting legal battle. 

2 . The persons involved in that legal battle were Antonio, a merchant of Venice, 
Shylock, a greedy and heartless moneylender, and Portia, a young and 
brilliant lawyer. 

9. Thanks to Portia's brilliant arguments Antonio's life was saved and Shylock 
had to not only accept defeat, but also face punishment. 

10. The case proved that justice should be combined with mercy. 

Task 3: Develop the following hints and write a report (100 words) for 
an English daily called 'The Morning Times'. 

Bus Accident near Virudhunagar 

A private bus going to Nagercoil from Madurai and a lorry coming from 
Thiruvananthapuram collided near Virudhunagar- 5 persons died on the spot- 
13 injured and taken to the Government hospital, Virudhunagar - some are 
seriously injured - reasons for the accident not known - but suspected that the 
lorry driver lost control after one of the tyres burst - police are investigating 

Task 4: Present a report of your school Sports Day or Annual Day. 

Task 5: Arrange a visit to the local Government Hospital and write a 
report based on your observations. 

78 



H. Occupational competency 

Presenting Non-verbal Items 

Encoding and Decoding are two common and useful strategies in presenting 
data. Encoding is the process by which data (facts, figures, etc.) is presented in 
a non-verbal form, i.e., as tables, graphs, etc. Decoding is the process by which 
graphic representations such as tables and graphs are interpreted so that the data 
is made meaningful to the readers. 

Tables and figures (non-verbal presentations) make the presentation not 
only simple and clear but attractive as well. 

Look at the following charts (bar chart and pie chart). 

Both present data regarding the composition of the hostellers in MMM 
Higher Secondary School, Tiruchi. There are 60 students in that hostel from 
Dindigul district, 18 from Madurai district, 70 from Virudhunagar district, 160 
from Tiruchi, 45 from Perambalur and 133 from Thanjavur. And these details 
have been presented in an attractive manner in the form of a bar chart and a pie 
chart. 




Taskl: 




Discuss in groups any three advantages of presenting data in the 
form of tables and graphs. 

Pick up five items from Newspapers and Magazines that are 
presented in the form of graphs and tables (e.g. Runs per over in a 
cricket match). 

79 



Task 2: Present the following data in the form of a table. 

Here is a comparative study of Tenth Standard results of NN Boys High 
School, Chennai, and VV Girls High School, Chennai, in 2002-2003. Both are 
run by the same management. Present the data in the form of a table with three 
columns, namely, Subject, NN Boys School and VV Girls High School. 

In Maths, all students in both the schools passed. In English, NN secured 
96% while for VV the pass percentage was 93%. In Tamil, both the schools 
secured a pass percentage of 98%. But in Science there was a difference between 
the two schools. While VV could secure 97 % MM could manage 89%. In 
Social Studies, there is not much difference between the two schools. NN's 
percentage stood at 96 while for W it was 1 % less than NN. (Note: Alphabetise 
the entries.) 



Subject 


NN Boys School 


VV Girls School 


English 































Task 3: A Central Minister is visiting the Meenakshi Amman temple 
in Madurai. Present his tour programme in the form of a table. 
Here are the details: 

The minister leaves Chennai at 1 :05 p.m. and reaches Madurai by a special 
aircraft at 1 :55 p.m. From the airport, he goes straight to the Collector's office. 
He spends 20 minutes with the collector (from 2:40 p.m. to 3:00 p.m.). At 3:00 
p.m. he leaves for the Meenakshi Amman temple. From 3: 1 5 p.m. to 4:00 p.m. 
he is at the temple. He leaves for the airport at 4 p.m. and takes his return flight 
to Chennai at 4:40 p.m. and catches the Delhi flight at 6: 10 p.m. 

Present this data in the form of a flow chart as well. You can work 
it out in a group. 



80 



Task 4: Present the following weather report (recorded in Tamilnadu 
on September 3, 2003) in the form of a table. Have four columns: 
Place, Maximum Temperature and Minimum Temperature in 
Celsius and rainfall during the last 24 hours. Alphabetise the 
entries. 

Vellore 32 - 24 - 0; Coimbatore 33-22-3; Chennai 35 - 26 - 0; 
Thanjavur 34 - 25 - 3; Kanyakumari 30 - 24 - 0; Ooty 18-13-4; Salem 34 - 
24-7; Nagappattinam 37-23-48; Madurai 35 - 25 - 0. 



Place 


Max. Temp. 


Min. Temp. 


Rainfall 











































































Present this report in the form of a paragraph as well. 

I. Strategic competency: 

Experimenting and trying out different learning strategies: 



There are different learning strategies. 

Learning strategies are contextualised, i.e., depending on the 

lesson and the objectives, the learner chooses and varies his/her 

strategies. 

Each individual has his/her own learning strategy. 

A smart learner thinks of short cuts (mnemonics) and time 

savers. 

e.g. VIBGYOR (the seven colours of the rainbow) 



81 



Task 1: Read the following story and find out the meanings of the words 
in bold: 



A man found an eagle's egg and placed it under a brooding hen. The 
eaglet hatched with the chickens and grew to be like them. He clucked and 
cackled; scratched the earth for worms; flapped his wings and managed to fly a 
few feet in the air. 

Years passed. One day, the eagle, now grown old, saw a magnificent bird 
above him in the sky. It glided in graceful majesty against the powerful wind, 
with scarcely a movement of its golden wings. Spellbound, the eagle asked, 
"Who's that?" "That's the king of the birds, the eagle," said his neighbour. "He 
belongs to the sky. We belong to earth,we're chickens." 

So the eagle lived and died a chicken, for that's what he thought he was. 

(From Tony de Mello's 'The Song of the Bird') 



In order to find the meaning - 

• Would you consult a dictionary? 

Refer to the dictionary and find out the meaning of spellbound. 

• Would you consult your friends and classmates? 

Consult your classmates and find out the meaning of eaglet. 

• Would you consult the teacher? 

Consult your teacher and find out the meaning of clucked and cackled. 

• Would you guess the meaning of most words from the context? 

Guess the meaning of the words flapped and glided from the context and 
check them with your teacher. 

Task 2: Discuss in groups: 

• Do you read prose and poetry in the same way? Why? 

• Do you study English and Tamil in a similar manner? Why? 

Do you study English and other subjects like Maths, Science and History 
in an identical manner? Why? 



• 



Remember that you should train and familiarise yourself 
with different learning strategies. 



82 



J. Creative competency 

I. Attempting to write a poem: 

Writing poetry need not be a difficult task. It can be a joyful activity, for it 
means playing with language. It also brings into play your imagination. 

Task 1: Provide rhyming words for the following list. Make sure that 
the words are related. 



Task 2 



e.g. strain-pain 


age-sage 


honey-money 


word- 


wood- 


soul- 


joy- 


take- 


noise- 


bend- 


chair- 


star- 


task- 


wealth- 


cloud- 


shake- 


wind- 


tale- 


2: Provide words to form 


alliteration. 




e. g. marriage - minds 


sad - stories 




tough - 


loving - 




heavy - 


fierce - 




pleasant - 


silent - 




wicked - 


cold- 




strict - 


dark - 





Task 3: Compose a poem on the topic "Rain". You may use the 
following words: 

water, cloud, breeze, comforting, rainbow, 
sky, sun, dry, earth, parched 
life, spring, hope, people, happy 
e.g. Darker the clouds, quicker the rain 
Faster the breeze, farther the rain 

Task 4: Compose a poem on "A Plane Crash". The first two stanzas 
are given to you. Add two more stanzas. 

(On June 23, 1 985, Air India's Boeing Kanishka, flying from Canada to 
India, plunged into the Atlantic ocean killing all 329 persons on board. It was an 
act of terrorism and the whole world condemned it.) 

83 



Oh Kanishka 

Mercilessly blasted by heartless terrorists 

Crashed the Boeing into the quiet sea 

With all three hundred and twenty nine on board - 

Men and women, young and old, with innocent children. 

Bits and pieces of both the plane and people 
Sank slowly into the dark, deep sea. 
With them sank our joys and hopes 
Into the deadly sea of inhumanity. 

Task 5: Compose a poem on "A Rose" or "My Mother". The first stanza 
is given to you. Add two more stanzas. 

A Rose 

A rose bloomed in my garden. 
Red and lovely it was 
Nodding its head gently. 
Is it God's gift to me? 

My Mother 

No better person can there be ! 
Mother, you are our life-giver. 
In you we place all our hope 
And certainly see God in you. 

II. Writing short skits: 

Note that a skit is a short funny play or a piece of writing. You can write a 
skit on a simple theme with just three or four characters. Simple dialogues and 
costumes are enough. The setting need not be elaborate. 

Task 1: Write a short skit based on the following story. 

You are all familiar with the Greek legend Midas. Midas is good to Bacchus, 
and pleased with his hospitality. Bacchus grants his wish that whatever he touches 
should be turned into gold, for Midas is very fond of gold. So whatever Midas 
touched (flowers, stones, plates, etc.) turned into gold. He found that the food he 
touched also turned into gold. And when he touched his daughter who came 
running to him she too turned into gold, and then he realised his foolishness. Then 

84 



he prayed to Bacchus to take back the boon, and his daughter is restored to life. 

Characters: Bacchus 
Midas 

Midas 's daughter 
Some servants 

Task 2: Write a skit on the evils of 'noise pollution' . 

Limit the number of characters to four: A doctor (ENT specialist), an old 
man who has lost his hearing (hearing impaired), his son who is in college and a 
nurse. The old man who has lost his hearing, visits the ENT specialist in his clinic 
and the action takes place inside the clinic. Use terms like: decibel, deafness and 
hearing aids. 

Self-Evaluation: 

I. Mark the stress on the following words : 

(i) permission (ii) develop (iii) atmosphere (iv) patriotism (v) refugee 
(vi) content (noun) 

II. Write down who the following characters are: 

e.g. Shylock - the Jewish money-lender 
Portia 

Lorenzo - 

Jessica - 

Nerrisa - 

Bassanio - 

Antonio - 

III. Fill in the blanks with suitable form of the verbs given in brackets. 

1 . If Mani (attend) the interview, he would have been selected. 

2. If I (is) rich, I would help the poor. 

3. If Mala (try) hard, she will get the prize. 

(Rewrite using Unless) 



85 



POEM 

SONNET NO: 116 

Let me not to the marriage of true minds 

Admit impediments. Love is not love 

Which alters when it alteration finds, 

Or bends with the remover to remove. 

O, no! it is an ever-fixed mark, 

That looks on tempests and is never shaken; 

It is the star to every wand 'ring bark, 

Whose worth's unknown, although his height be taken. 

Love's not Time's fool, though rosy lips and cheeks 

Wthin his bending sickle's compass come; 

Love alters not with his brief hours and weeks, 

But bears it out even to the edge of doom. 

If this be error and upon me prov'd, 

I never writ, nor no man ever lov'd. 

- William Shakespeare 

Note: The first collected edition of Shakespeare 's sonnets appeared in 1609. 
There are totally 154 sonnets and the major themes of these sonnets include 
the destructive power of time, the permanence of poetry (art), triangular 
love and the analysis of amorous emotion (love). It has to be noted that 
apart from these 154 sonnets Shakespeare also wrote two long poems titled 
'Venus and Adonis' and 'The Rape of Lucrece' . 

Sonnet: A sonnet is a lyric (short, personal poem) written in a single stanza 
consisting of fourteen lines. Sonnet 116 ( "Let me not to the marriage . . .") 
deals with the theme of true love. Many critics consider it "incomparable" 
and call it "the finest of all ". In this poem various images are used to 
highlight the nature of true and deep love. 

Glossary and notes: 

admit impediments : refers to the Christian marriage service 

where the priest asks the peopled gathered 
if they have any objections to the couple 
getting married 

"Impediments" means obstacles 
86 



ever-fixed mark 



it is the star... height be taken 



a prominent land or sea-mark which guides 
ships; true love guides one through the 
voyage of life 

during Shakespeare's time people 
believed that the stars influenced men's 
character; in the journey of life, to many a 
"wandering bark" (a lost boat) the star of 
genuine love turns out to be the guiding 
factor; a star's "height" (altitude) can be 
measured but the extent to which it controls 
the fate of man (its "worth") cannot be 
determined; similarly, the depth ("worth") 
of true love cannot be measured 



love's not... compass come 



true love cannot be destroyed by Time; 
external beauty can be destroyed by time 
but not true love; note the destructive 
power of time ("bending sickle") 

edge of doom : day of the last judgement (on the last day 

of the world) 
Comprehension questions: 

1 . Mention any two qualities of true love . 

2 . What is inconstant love? 

3 . Comment on the nature of Time. What does Time do to beauty? 

Appreciation questions: 

1 . Give a suitable title to the poem. Give reasons for your choice. 

2 . Do you like the poem? Why? 

3 . Alliteration is the repetition of the same consonant sound in several nearby 
words. Example: "Let me not to the true marriage of true minds." 

4. What are the other instances of alliteration in this sonnet? Give two 
examples. 

Answer the following passages with reference to the context: 

1 . 'Which alters when it alteration finds , 
Or bends with the remover to remove. ' 



87 



2. 'It is the star to every wand'ring bark, 

Whose worth's unknown, although his height be taken.' 

Activity: 

1. Translate the poem into Tamil. 

2 . Collect poems in Tamil which speak of true love. 

3 . Who is your close friend? Write a poem on your friendship. 



88 



UNIT III 

A LISTENING: Using correct intonation patterns (placing nuclear accent 
for prominence, to express hesitation, sympathy, etc.) 

B SPEAKING: Conversing at the railway station, bus stop, airport, etc. 
(Reservation enquiry, bus/flight reservation/timings) Lodging 
complaints at the police station 

C READING: Predicting 

Understanding paragraph organisation 
D VOCABULARY: Spelling words correctly 

Identifying words in confusing pairs 

Identifying differences in spelling in British/ American English 

Identifying differences between spelling and pronunciation 

Identifying the sound/spelling regularity which co-exists with sound/ 
spelling irregularity 

E STUDY SKILLS: Accessing the Internet 

Understanding and using e-mail language 

F GRAMMAR: Using other conditional clauses - 'unless' , 'otherwise' , 
'in case', etc., & Concessional clause 

G WRITING: Writing a diary 

Using correct punctuation 

H OCCUPATIONAL COMPETENCY: Preparing advertisements 

I STRATEGIC COMPETENCY: Noting down/writing important items 
as they occur (items observed - errors) 

J CREATIVE COMPETENCY: Giving an opinion about something 
Preparing script for a talk- show over the TV/Radio 



89 



A. Listening 

I. The teacher will read aloud an extract from a radio announcement, 
which is an account of the plight of farmers. Listen carefully. You may 
listen to it 2-3 times. 

(The teacher reads) 

Task 1: Listen and then indicate whether the statements given below 
are True (S) or False (x). The first one is done for you. 

1 . Farmers are happy about the RBI Loan. ( x) 

2. The loans would help all farmers ( ) 

3 . Farmers find it difficult to pay the interest on their loan 

amount. ( ) 

4. They borrow money only from banks. ( ) 

5 . Drought in the last two years had added to the farmers' 

problems. ( ) 

Task 2: Work in pairs and discuss: 

(i) What helped you to understand the news item? 

(ii) Did the way in which the sentences were spoken - the 'tune' - help you? 

(iii) Did the emphasis on certain words make the meaning clearer? 

Note: How you say something is as important as what you say. 

//. The teacher will read the following sentences aloud. 

Farmer Kesavan : We ought to produce more food. 

Outhakutty : Ought we to produce more food? 

How were the two sentences spoken? 

The first sentence is a statement. Did you hear it spoken with a falling 
tune? 

The second sentence is a question. Did you hear it spoken with a rising 
tune? 

There is a pattern in our speech. The pattern in which the tone change 

90 



takes place during our speech is called intonation. Intonation makes the meaning 
clear and tells us exactly what and how something is being said. In the two 
sentences, the focus is on the word 'food' . So the change of tone is on this 
word. The syllable on which there is a change in pitch direction is called the 
nucleus. So we use stress / accent on this word. 

Task 1: The teacher will read the same sentence spoken by a young 
villager to three different friends, Bharath, Siddhu and Renu. 
On each occasion the nuclear stress is on a different word. 
Listen carefully. 

(The teacher reads) 

Can you say on which word the nucleus falls on each occasion? 
What do you think happened as a result? 

To avoid any confusion, therefore, use stress and intonation 
carefully. 

Task 2: The teacher will read the following sentences twice. Each 
time the nucleus will be on a different word and the meaning 
of the sentence will change slightly. Listen and underline the 
nucleus. Then say in what way the two sentences are different 
in meaning. One example is done for you. 

e. g. This p en isn' t the one I like. 

(Meaning: there are other pens I like, not this one) 
This pen isn't the one I like. 
(Meaning: Others like this pen, I do not) 

1. I'm sorry, but I can't help you. 

2. He doesn't really like brinjals. 

3 . I thought Economics was a boring subject 

4. I only said to the child, "You should get up earlier". 

5 . I'll never pas s in Hindi . 

6 . Some children have broken the window. 

7 . At least you could try. 

Task 3: The teacher will read aloud a passage containing the views 
expressed by a young person regarding the spending of pocket 
money. As she reads, listen to the rising and falling tones 
(intonation) and mark it. 

91 



(The teacher reads) 

Task 4: The teacher will read the passage again. Listen and complete 
the gapped summary of the passage. You may use your own 
words, provided the meaning does not change. 

Parents should not the spending of pocket money. Once it is 

given, the money to the receiver. Making decisions about how to 

spend it, teaches young people Often, when they want to spend their 

money on a particular item, parents Young people should be permitted 

to make That is how they 

Task 5: The teacher will read the passage again. Listen and say what 
the following words mean in the context. Tick (^)your choice. 



1. 

2. 
3. 
4. 
5. 


sacred 

dignity 

enticing 

translate 

squander 


: religious /divine 

: pride /ceremony 

: tempting /bright 

: render into another language / convert 

: use / spend wastefully 


B. 


Speaking 





I. At the Railway station 

'Your attention please ! Train No. 660 1 Chennai - Mangalore Mail will 
leave platform No.2 at 7.45 p.m. Train No. 1063 Chennai - Dadar Express 
scheduled to arrive at 8.05 p.m. is running late by 2 hours. The expected time of 
arrival is now 10.00 p.m. The inconvenience is regretted.' 

At the Airport 

'Calling all passengers travelling by flight No.945 to Hyderabad. You are 
requested to proceed for security check.' 

When you go to the railway station, the bus-station or the airport, the first 
thing that you hear are announcements like the above. However, to enter the 
station or airport, you first have to buy a ticket. 

(i) The following is a conversation between Ram and the person at 
the ticket counter: 

Ram : Good evening ! May I have a platform ticket please ? 

Person at the counter : Certainly, Sir. 

92 



Ram : How much is it? 

Person at the counter : Rs . 3/- please . 

Ram : Here you are ! 

Person at the counter : Thank you. 

Task 1: Practise the above dialogue in pairs. 

Task 2: Fill in the blanks in the following conversation. 

At the Bus Station 

Raghu : Has the bus from Trichy arrived? 

Time-keeper : No, 

Raghu : Whenwillit ? 

Time-keeper : It is expected at 

Raghu : Odear! May I wait here? 

Time-keeper : Certainly, 

Task 3: Practise the above conversation taking roles. 

(ii) Read the following dialogue. 

A Telephone Conversation 

A : Eagle Airways, Good Morning. 

B : Good Morning ! My name is Ravi Mehta and F m calling to confirm my 

ticket. 
A : Just a moment, sir. Let me get the form Right, Sir, your name, 

please - would you spell it for me, sir? 
B : Yes, its Ravi Mehta R-A-V-I M-E-H-T-A 

A : Thank you, sir. Your flight No and date of travel? 

B : Flight No.931 

A : F m sorry, Sir. Did you say Flight 913? 

B : No. It is flight 93 1 , to Trivandrum, leaving 2 1 st of September. 

A : Could I have your telephone number please? 

B : Certainly. It is 044 -8356212. 

A : Are you on our Special Frequent Flier programme, sir? 

B : Yes, I am. Do you have my number? 

A : No, I'm sorry. I'm afraid, we don't. Would you please give it to me 

sir? 
B : All right it's FF 2345678 

93 



A : Right! Thank you, sir. Your ticket is confirmed. 
B : Thank you. 

Task 1: Take roles and practise the conversation. 

Task 2: Discuss in pairs: 

(i) Was this a polite conversation? 

(ii) Which words made it polite? 

Some of the words used were, 'Please', 'Sorry'. Add some more polite 
words from the dialogue, as well as some of your own. 

Task 3: Check for availability of ticket to Bangalore, by phone. 
Remember to use polite language at all times. Here are some 
phrases you could use: 

'May / Can I ...', 'Iwouldliketo...', 'Please permit me to say ....', ' 

I'm sorry, but ', 'I'm very disappointed ....', 'Would you please ', 

'I would be obliged if ', 'I'm afraid I '. 

(Hi) The following is a conversation between Reena and the reservation 
clerk at the enquiry counter: 

Reena : Could you please check the availability of four tickets to 

Madurai by Pandian Express, for the 12 th of January, please? 

Here is the filled in form. 
Clerk : (Checks) Sorry, madam. It is waiting list 102. 

Reena : What about the Vaigai Express for the same day? 

Clerk : It's 7?AC 32 -35. 

Reena : Sorry, Madam. How about Tatkal booking? 

Clerk : For Tatkal you will have to come on the day of departure at 

8.00 a.m. with a proof of ID. It will cost Rs.50/- extra per person. 

It is on a first come first served basis. 
Reena : Well, if you don 'tmind, could you please check the availability 

by Pandian Express for the next day - 1 3 th of Jan. please? 
Clerk : Yes, it is available. You can book your tickets at the reservation 

counter. 
Reena : Thank you. 

(Reena proceeds to the reservation counter) 
Reena : Can I book my tickets to Madurai, please? Here is the form. I 

94 



would like two lower berths please for my grand-parents. 
Clerk : Would you like to avail yourself of senior citizen concession! 

Reena : Yes, please. 

Clerk : Rs.832/- please. 

Reena : (Gives the money and takes the ticket) Thank you. 

Task 1: Practise the dialogue in pairs. 

Task 2: Using the words given in italics in the above conversation, 
prepare a similar dialogue to book tickets for your class-mates 
and teacher for an excursion to Ooty. You can also use these 
words/phrases- 'bulk booking ', 'side berths ', 'confirmed tickets '. 

II. At the Police Station 

There was a burglary in your home late last night. Some jewellery and 
money are missing. You lodge a complaint at the Bakkam Police Station. 

Task: Complete your conversation with the inspector. 



You 
Inspector 



You 

Inspector 

You 



Inspector 

You 

Inspector 

You 

Inspector 

You 

Inspector 

You 

Inspector 



Good morning. I want to report a break-in. 

Good morning, Sir. Please take a seat. (Calls) Ramu .... Singh! 

Come and note down this gentleman's complaint, (to you) Yes. 

Sir. Tell me what happened. 

This happened last night - around 3.00 a.m. I think. 

Who was in the house? 

My parents and me. My father and I were sleeping in one room. 

My mother has chicken pox, so she was sleeping in the other 

room. 

Did you hear anything? 

We didn't hear anything. But mother did. . . . 

Did she see anyone? 

No, 

What sound ? 



What did ? 

She woke us And we 

What is missing? Please give 

Ramu Singh, please note 



95 



You : I think Rs and jewellery like 2 gold rings, 

, are missing. 

Inspector : Right, Sir. Please sign this form. We'll do our best. Now I'll 

You : Thank you, Inspector. 

Task 1: Work in pairs and role -play the conversation. 

Task 2: Prepare dialogues for the following situations. Then role - 
play in pairs. 

Complaining at the police station about: 

(a) The theft of your two- wheeler 

(b) The loss of your bag containing original certificates 
C. Reading 

Pre-reading 

I. Work in pairs. Fill in the bubbles with words that come to your 
mind when you think of a farmer. 




II. Now we will read a story about a farmer. What do you think the 
story will be about? Discuss briefly with your partner. 

96 



THE FARMER 

- Thakazhi Sivasankara Pillai 

That fifty -para paddy field is owned by someone in Vaikom. Kesavan 
Nair has been cultivating it for the last forty years. Before that, Kesavan Nair 's 
uncle was its cultivator. 

Some ten years ago, when paddy prices were as high as five to seven 
rupees abushel, rich people from Changanassery and Thiruvalla, had come there 
for paddy cultivation. They got on lease, groups of paddy fields. They used a 
tractor for deep-ploughing and new fertilisers, to produce bumper crops. And 
they made huge profits. Kesavan Nair's fifty para was in the centre of such 
groups of fields. Big - time farmer, Outhakkutty, met Kesavan Nair one day, on 
the mud-bund of the field. The crop in the "fifty" was poor when compared to 
those around it. Outhakkutty broke in, by way of exchanging civilities: "Why is 
the paddy not lush and robust enough? Didn't you use fertilisers?" 

That question struck Kesavan Nair's heart. The neighbouring farmer 
insinuates that the paddy he cultivates is inferior in growth! 

"After you big guys came, can we drain out the water at the right times? 
No time is convenient enough for you. We can do farm work only at your 
convenience". 

Outhakkutty, an arch diplomat, said, "Why do you say that, Uncle Kesavan? 
I had specifically arranged with my people to pay heed to your convenience." 

Kesavan Nair was cross. "Oh! Nice arrangement indeed! I could water 
the land only after my paddy seedlings had wilted in the sun. I went after your 
servant, begging. He said he can't because you had instructed him not to give 
water to me." 

Outhakkutty had to counter that accusation. ' 'Will there be any such difficulty, 
if you do the sowing at the same time as in the neighbouring fields?" 

Kesavan Nair was piqued. "Don't teach me all that. It's not yesterday that 
I started cultivating paddy." 

Kesavan Nair continued, increasingly irritated, "No one becomes a farmer 
by pouring in money, dumping fertilisers and raising a crop of paddy." 

97 



After a few days, Kesavan Nair and Oufhakkutty's servant quarrelled 
with each other, upon the mud-bund of the field. On all sides there was water. 
But the "fifty" was parched dry and cracked up and the shoots were wilted. 
Kesavan Nair, heart-broken at the sight, cut a breach in the mud-bund. The 
servant sealed it up. They pushed and jostled each other. It would have culminated 
in murder. Luckily, that did not happen. Three or four days later, the crop in 
Kesavan Nair's "fifty" was submerged up to the tips of the plants in water. The 
top of the shoots were not at all to be seen above the water's surface. That 
servant's doing! When the time came for the sunning of Outhakkutty's paddy 
plants, the water was diverted to Kesavan Nair's "fifty". How was he to drain 
that water away? Where will he take it to? Can he drink it all up? Kesavan 
Nair's shoots began to rot. 

Kuttichovan, a friend of Kesavan Nair, asked in consternation, "Why don't 
we cut open breaches on the bunds at night and divert the water back to the 
other fields?" 

Kesavan Nair did not like that idea. He said, "That should not be done in 
puncha-kandam. Cut open bunds in the dead of night! Can a farmer do that, 
Kutty? Let me perish. I will not do what should not be done." 

Then another friend, Kutty Mappila, said, "Are all the things happening 
now, befitting a puncha-kandam?" 

Kesavan Nair said he would never perpetrate that adharma. Kutty Mappila, 
who was listening to it all, said, half-soliloquising. "So it was good that I leased 
out my piece of land to Outhakkutty. Or else, my fate too would have been the 
same now." Kuttichovan also said the same thing. Of the 500 acre complex, only 
Kesavan Nair's five acres remained outside Outhakutty's domain. Listening to 
the talk of his friends, Kesavan Nair said, "I too could have entrusted mine to 
him. But, what else is there for my livelihood? What work will I do? You, Kutty 
Mappila, get at least 500 coconuts. Kuttychovan has four sons, working. I have 
only this field on lease. And I can eke out a living, only by tilling it." 

That night, the water in the "fifty" somehow drained away. Someone had 
breached the mud-bunds at night. Certainly it was not Kesavan Nair. Since that 
water spread evenly into the fields surrounding that field, no ill effects had occurred 
to the crops of those fields. It was clear that the farmer of the neighbouring fields 
had let in water to that "fifty" on purpose. 

98 



Next morning, Kesavan Nair went out to the field and saw for himself. 
Who had perpetrated this adharma? The weight of that sin would fall on him 
alone. He had not known anything about it. He wondered how he was going to 
prove his innocence. 

Two days passed thus. On the third day, in the morning, before anyone 
woke up, Kesavan Nair went to the field and looked around. The weak shoots, 
which had been flattened to the ground, had started rising up, in the sun's warmth. 
His crop wouldn' t perish. After three or four days of getting the sun, the shoots 
should be soaked a little by letting in water for one day, and some manure put in. 
Then, the crop would be excellent, first rate. 

Where could he raise the money from? Who would give him money? The 
household expenses were met by the proceeds from the four milch cows. Kesavan 
Nair toyed with the idea of selling one of them to raise the funds. But his wife 
wouldn't agree to it. 

"The shoots are properly sunned, aren't they, Uncle Kesavan? 

Kesavan Nair turned around. It was Outhakutty. Suddenly Kesavan Nair 's 
obsession about the adharma upset him. Outhakutty stood there as if he had 
caught the culprit. He, Kesavan Nair, should give him a proper explanation. He 
had to establish his innocence in the matter. With a troubled smile, Kesavan Nair 
said, "Upon my grand-uncle! Upon this 'puncha-kandam' which is true to its 
tradition, it is not I who breached the bund, Outhakutty ! I am a true farmer. A 
farmer worth his name would never do such an adharma." 

Outhakutty watched Kesavan Nair's anxiety. "Why do you swear by your 
ancestors, Uncle Kesavan? It is not you who breached the bund. It's I who did 
it. I did it because I saw your paddy submerged." 

Kesavan Nair was relieved. His eyes shone. "Is it true? Tell me the truth! 
Oh, it's such a relief! May you do well in life, my boy ! I feared I would have to 
carry the weight of this infamy with me till my death." 

Outhakutty once more said emphatically. "Yes, Uncle Kesavan. It's I 
who did it. Although you hate me, can I hate you? When I saw that sight, my 
heart nearly stopped. I opened the breach. Let my paddy perish, if it has to, I 
said to myself. 

99 



Outhakutty said, glancing all over the "fifty". "If you could sprinkle a little 
manure, the crop would be excellent, Uncle Kesavan." 

"I was thinking of that just now." 

"Then you have to do it." 

"One should have money for that. Money ! I don't have money". 

"If you want a good crop, you should spend money." 

"The times are such." 

Outhakutty said, as if because of his fondness for Kesavan Nair: "Uncle 
Kesavan! May I say something?" 

"Why are you taking all this trouble, Uncle Kesavan? I'll give you the 
lease-rent for the landlord at Vaikom and fifty bushels of paddy extra. Hand 
over the field to me. Why toil so much in your old age?" 

Kesavan Nair suddenly became another person altogether. He was furious. 
Yet, controlling his anger, he said: "No, no. Keep that thought to yourself 
Outhakutty. We have cultivated this field right from the times of our ancestors . 
No one else shall cultivate it." 

"That's all right. You are the lessee of the Vaikom landlord. And I will be 
your lessee". 

"No. That won't do. I was bom a farmer. Farming is my occupation. And 
I have five heads of cattle, besides. They need the hay. No. It won't work, 
Outhakutty...." 

No manure was put in the "fifty". The crop was bad. Dismal, that is. During 
the harvest season, Kesavan Nair could not get hold of reapers. All around, 
Outhakutty's first-rate crop was there; if they reaped that the reapers would get 
two bushels of paddy as percentage wage. 

The paddy was getting overripe. At last, the members of Kutty Mappila' s 
and Kuttichovan's families, and Kesavan Nair's family members together reaped 
the field. 

The crop was very, very bad. It was doubtful whether there would be 
sufficient paddy to pay the lease-rent. Kutty Mappila, Kuttichovan and Kesavan 
Nair conferred together. Kutty Mappila's opinion was that the lease-rent need 

100 



only be proportionate to the crop output. Till that moment, there wasn't even a 
grain of paddy as outstanding payment of rent. "You can give more, if next year's 
crop is better." 

Kesavan Nair couldn't agree to that. 

'This is the only piece of land the landlord has. And he has only this much 
of paddy to get. We have collected the crop. We should give the whole rent. The 
land will turn barren, if the landlord's tears fall on it." 

The entire crop was just sufficient for the payment of the lease-rent. What 
remained for Kesavan Nair was just a ton and a half bushels of paddy, spillage 
on the threshing floor and the chaff! He couldn't make good even the seed- 
paddy and the labour charges ! 

The lease-rent paddy was carried to the landlord's house. The landlord 
was a Thirumulpad. Kesavan Nair had sensed that there was a slight change of 
expression on Thirumulpad' s face. What was unusual was that he asked whether 
the entire lease-rent paddy had been brought. And he made this comment: "My 
information was that this year I would not get the entire lease-rent paddy." 

Kesavan Nair gave a quick repartee. "Isn't it at least a hundred years, 
since we took this "fifty" for cultivation, Thirumeni? Is there even a grain of paddy 
outstanding as lease-rent payment?" 

Thirumulpad didn't say a word. 

The lease-rent paddy was measured out without leaving even a grain as 
deficit. Still, Thirumulpad's face didn't exhibit any trace of satisfaction. 

He gave lunch to Kesavan Nair and the boatmen as usual. 

When Kesavan Nair approached, after lunch, to take leave, Thirumulpad 
told him that he had something to say to him. 

"What is it?" asked Kesavan Nair. 

The reply was abrupt. "Someone has approached me with an offer to take 
the land on an increased rate of rent. He is a very smart person too. Kesavan, 
you should relinquish the land." 

An idea dawned upon Kesavan Nair. "What increase of rent is proposed 
now?" 



101 



"A hundred bushels of paddy. And the person is very sound. How will I 
recover any arrears you may accumulate?" 

Kesavan Nair argued hotly: "So far there are no arrears." 

No one spoke for sometime. Kesavan Nair continued. "Thirumeni, I shall 
give you that increased rate of rent." 

"I'll tell you one thing, Thirumeni. I know who has approached you. It's 
Outhakkutty. But he is not a true farmer, Thirumeni. The likes of him don't love 
the soil. They'll put in a lot of fertilisers, prodigally extract the fertility of the soil 
and raise good crops. After four or five years, your land will turn into useless, 
bran-like soil. Not even grass will sprout there". 

Thirumulpad was walking back and forth the length of the verandah. He 
didn't speak a word. Kesavan Nair continued to speak. The words choked his 
throat. His eyes brimmed with tears. "It's this field I saw, when I was bom. The 
sweat of my ancestors has also added to its fertility. I have loved only that field in 
my entire life." 

Kesavan Nair broke down. "N-no ! You shouldn't evict me from there, 
Thirumeni". Even Thirumulpad's heart seemed to melt a little. He said, "I must 
get my rent". Kesavan Nair sobbed. "I'll give you that rent." 

The next day, Kesavan Nair called the ploughmen and he had the field 
ploughed once. He didn't even think how he was going to pay them wages. 
From that day, the ploughmen pestered him for payment of wages . How could 
he have the land ploughed again, without paying the wages for the first ploughing? 

Thus the field fell fallow. The neighbouring fields were regularly ploughed 
every month. The "fifty" was overgrown with weeds. 

It was time for the sowing of the next crop. The work of putting up the 
mud-bunds was over. The water was being drained. The "fifty" was lying vacant, 
without being ploughed, without weeding, without the soil being prepared. Poor 
Kesavan Nair didn't even have the necessary seed-paddy His fight then turned 
towards his wife. One cow must be sold. She didn't like the idea, though. Kesavan 
Nair sold a cow without the consent of his wife. The money the cow's sale 
brought in was sufficient only for ten bushels of seed-paddy and ten rupees for 
the labour charges. Kesavan Nair tied up the seed-paddy and put it in water. He 
took out the seed the following day. Not even half of it had germinated. And he 

102 



was supposed to sow that day itself. Kutty Mappila advised him to sow it as it 
was. It will germinate, lying in the soil! That's the only way out, besides. He did 
just that. 

The paddy was growing robustly in the neighbouring fields. In the "fifty", 
weeds had grown thickly. Not even a single shoot was to be seen. The harvest 
that year was over. There was no need to reap the "fifty". The date of handing 
over the lease-rent paddy had expired. Thirumulpad reached the spot. Kesavan 
Nair was in hiding. For three days, Thirumulpad went about looking for him. He 
was not to be found. 

The next day, Outhakkutty's men got into the "fifty" and ploughed the 
field. Thirumulpad stood on the mud-bund, looking on. The sowing of the next 
crop was over. Early every morning, Kesavan Nair would go out to the fields, 
like a farmer who had a crop to look after. On watching him go, one would think 
that he really had a crop somewhere. He returned home only after the day had 
progressed. It was the habit of forty years. 

The paddy in the "fifty" was growing high, as if challenging Kesavan Nair. 
He'd go there everyday. When once he spotted a slight yellowing of the plants, 
his heart burned. He sought out Outhakkutty and reported the matter. Not only 
that; he stood by and had the necessary remedial measures carried out. 

- Translated by A.J. Thomas 

Thakazhi Sivasankara Pillai, (1912 - 1999) popularly referred to as 
'Thakazhi ', is the most celebrated contemporary Malayalam writer. He is, 
without doubt, the most well-known Malayalam novelist and his short novel 
"Chemmeen " was given international reception.Thakazhi was the recipient 
of many awards and honours - the Bharatiya Jnanpith Award, (1984). The 
Soviet Land Nehru Award (1975), The Sahitya Akademi Award (1957) and 
Vayalar Rama Varma Award (1980).Though a 'Vakil' by profession, 
Thakazhi 's heart was not in his profession and after twenty years of working 
as a 'Pleader', he took to full-time writing. Thakazhi wrote in Malayalam, 
his mother tongue, and was an active writer for 65 years. He wrote over 35 
novels and many short stories. 



: a unit for measuring grain = 8 gallons 
: contract where land /property is rented 
103 



bushel 


/'bOLi/ 


lease 


/w 



parched 


/pA:tI£/ 


wilted 


/wlltld 


jostled 


/'dZBsld/ 


submerged 


/sEb'mE : dZd/ 


culminated 


/"kVlmlneltlcV 


consternation 


/kBnstE'neILn/ 


breaches 


/bri_:tll^ 


soliloquising 


/sE'lIlEkwalzItf 


perpertrated 


/pE:pItreItId / 


infamy 


/'infEml/ 


spillage 


IspIlIdZl 


relinquish 


/rl'lINkwIl/ 


prodigally 


/prBdlc^ll/ 


fallow 


/'fGlEO/ 


germinate 


/"dZErmlnelt/ 


piqued 


/pi:kt/ 



shoot 

chaff 
repartee 



/Eu:t/ 

/tIA:tf 



Malay alam words: 



para 

puncha-kandam 

adharma 

Thirumulpad 

Thimmeni 



/pVra:/ 

/pVntLE kVndEm/ 
/VQErma:/ 
/tIrQrElpa:d/ 
/tlrOrelnl/ 



Which words in the lesson mean the 

(a) jostle 



dry 

having lost freshness 

pushed roughly 

under the surface of water 

reached the final stage 

feeling of anxiety 

openings 

speaking to oneself 

did something wrong 

a bad and shocking act or event 

amount spilt 

give up 

spending money wastefully without 

thinking of the consequences 

land where nothing is planted 

(of a seed) to start growing 

angry as a result of one's pride being 

hurt 

the first part of a plant to appear 

above the earth 

the outer layer of seeds 

a quick, amusing remark in a 

conversation 

a measure for grain (10 kg) 

a group of five fields 

injustice 

belonging to the royal family 

a respectful term used to address 

one's boss 

same as: 



(b) angry 

(c) region 

(d) enough 

(e) firmly 



104 



Antonyms 

In the sentences below fill in the gaps with words from the lesson, 
opposite in meaning to the words underlined. One example has been 
done for you. 

(a) The company claimed that they had already handed over the money, but 
the labourers countered saying that was not true. 

(b) The showers poured down soaking the earth. 

(c) They had cemented their friendship by starting a company together. 

However their later actions caused a serious in their 

relations. 

(d) Everyone, the innocent as well as the was taken to task. 

(e) Whenever the work gets more difficult, Imolu shirks his work, while Jiza 
hard as always. 

(f) Since it is not possible for most farmers to make advance payment, they 
always have loans. 

Comprehension 

I. Answer the following questions briefly: 

1 . How much land did Kesavan Nair cultivate? 

2 . Who did that land belong to? 

3. Why was the crop in Kesavan Nair's field not as healthy as the crops in 
the other fields? 

4. Who cultivated the lands around Kesavan Nair's "50" ? 

5 . Why did Outhakutty 's servant and Kesavan Nair quarrel? 

6 . Why did Kesavan Nair hide after someone had breached the mud-banks 
one night? 

7 . Who had actually breached the mud banks? 

8 . ' 'Why toil so much in your old age?' ' What does Outhakutty want Kesavan 
Nair to do? 

9. Why did the reapers refuse to harvest Kesavan Nair's field that season? 

10. Why does Thirumulpad give the land to Outhakutty? 

105 



//. Given below are statements made by certain characters in the story. 
Say who said the words and what they tell you about the person. 



Statement 


Who speaks 
the words 


What it reveals 
about the person 


1. Cut open bunds in 
the dead of night! 
Can a farmer do 
that? 






2. So it was good I 
leased out my 
piece of land to 
Outhakutty. 






3. If you want a good 
crop, you should 
spend money. 







III. Work in pairs - A and B 

A is Kesavan Nair and B is Outhakutty 

Refer to the Section when they meet on the mud-bank and Outhakutty 
asks Kesavan Nair to hand over the field to him. Role - play the scene as if you 
were acting it out before the class.You could use simple props like a stick for 
Kesavan Nair and a turban for Outhakutty. 

IV. Now think of the same scene. 

If you had been in Kesavan Nair's place, would you have handed over the 
land to Outhakutty? Answer in about 1 00 words giving reasons for your decision. 

Making Predictions 

Task 1: Answer the following question. 

What predictions does Kesavan Nair make about the fate of the fields in 
Outhakutty's hands? 

Task 2 : Before you read the story, "The Farmer, "you had written down 
words which came to your mind when you thought about a 
farmer. How many of those words match farmer Kesavan Nair? 
Fill in the bubbles with words that describe him. 

106 




In Section II of the same part, you tried to predict what the story would be 
about. 

We make predictions about the future based on our knowledge of past 
experiences and present trends. 

Task 3: Which of the following people make predictions ? 

(i) Planners (ii) Politicians (iii) Astrologers (iv) Historians 
(v) Weather forecasters (vi) Fashion - designers 

Task 4: When you read newspaper headlines, do you make predictions 
about the content of the relevant passage? Read the following 
headlines and in pairs discuss what they could be about. 

(i) 3 - year old mauled, by dog later shot dead by police 
(ii) Rajasthan Govt, removes poll officer 
(iii) 34 killed as train hits bus 

Task 5: Read the given headlines. 'Guess ' and make predictions about 
the content. Then match the headlines with the content. 



107 



SUSPECT ARRESTED 



ATTACKED BY SHARK - SURFBOARD BITTEN IN HALF 



INDIAN WINS TOP CHESS PRIZE 



HEATERS FOR CATS, BLANKETS FOR SNAKES 



POLL-OFFICER SUSPENDED 



An Indian Schoolboy from 
Mirzabad has won the first prize in 
the International Youth Chess 
Tournament in Rome beating 50 
other contestants 



Following a directive from the 
chief election commissioner, an 
officer on duty during the recent 
elections has been removed. Paul 
Singh, was charged with 
tampering with the name lists and 
threatening people who had come 
to cast their votes. 



With mercury dipping down to 2 
degrees Celsius, the birds and animals in 
the Anna Zoological Park are coping 
with the cold with special arrangements. 
For animals like cats, heaters are being 
provided, while snakes are being kept 
warm under blankets. 



Mila Gulab, who had been absconding 
after stealing money from the State 
Bank of Hyderabad, in a daring 
daylight attack on Monday, has been 
arrested. Gulab was apprehended when 
he was buying gold jewellery from a 
popular shop in a nearby town. 



Holiday makers off the coast of Australia were subjected to a rude shock when they 
were suddenly attacked by a shark. Fortunately it was spotted as soon as it attacked 
a surfer, its jaws tearing the surf - board in two. Coast - guards rushed to the rescue 
and it was shot dead within minutes. 



Organising the text 

Task 1: Read the given narrative. Rearrange the sentences to make 
'sense', Underline the words which helped you to do this. 



108 



1 . Mr. R.G. of Tenali, a gentleman, well-known to the police for stealing 
from local shops, first planned to pay his monthly visit to Tenali's new S- 
Department Store after the Tamil New Year. 

2 . The shop was running a short training course for Tenali' s security officers 
that day. 

3 . He finally chose 2 nd October to set off and do his usual shoplifting. 

4. But then he decided to avoid the crowds who always go shopping during 
that time. 

5 . He had just begun his work and had taken an expensive watch, and a pair 
of socks, when six pairs of hands grabbed him. 

Task 2: Now read another piece of 'jumbled' writing given below. 
Rearrange the paragraphs to make it a sensible narrative. Look 
out for words, which help us to arrange I organise our writing: 

(1) Linking words like : but, when 

(2) Punctuation marks 

(3) Pronouns like : he, who 

(4) Sequence markers like : firstly 

(i) For another ten long minutes there was no trace of any other bus 
coming. As if to add to our misery, the sky became overcast and the clouds 
threatened rain any time now. In a few minutes it started pouring and the 
exasperated mob ran helter-skelter. At this juncture, another bus approached at 
a lightning speed, as if bound for New Jerusalem. This speeding demon came to 
a screeching halt, coughing up fumes. Soon the crowd clambered into the bus, 
but the leviathan would not budge from its place. Why? It had broken down. 

(ii) This is only one example of the manner in which we commuters suffer 
every day. 

(iii) When buses do not run on time waiting for a bus is undoubtedly an 
exhausting experience. If a person is not rich enough to own a car, or a two- 
wheeler, he has to commute by bus and undergo a lot of inconvenience. As I too 
do not own a car, I am often a victim of the vagaries of the driver. 

(iv) I stood one day at a shelter-less bus-stand, braving the sweltering heat 
of the sun, on a dreary day in the month of August. Twenty minutes had ticked 
away yet there was no bus in sight. Then suddenly I caught sight of a huge, green, 

109 



monster turn the corner. With a faint smile on my lips, I presumed that I would be 
safely and shortly deposited home. But to my utter dismay, the bus was on the 
verge of capsizing with acapacity crowd already inside the bus. The irate conductor 
gave a quick, double whistle to escape from the clutches of the disappointed 
passengers on the pavement, and the bus sped past. 

(v) After a futile wait, a speeding auto-driver, broke the hot news of a flash 
strike by the bus-drivers. Making good the opportunity, I boarded an empty 
auto flying past, not minding the astronomical sum quoted by the driver, in the 
wake of the strike. 

In a narrative the paragraphs as well as the sentences in a passage 
are related in a meaningful way to each other. To understand it, therefore, 
we have to be aware of the relationships and not be content with the mere 
understanding of words. 

Task 3: Which words show these relationships ? Give examples for each 
from the passage you have just read, for the following: 

Connectives (Linkers) - 



Which show (Cause) 


as 


(Result) 


so 


(Addition) 


and 


(Sequence) 


then 


(Contrast) 


although 


Reference words - 




(like pronouns) 


they 




it 



Identifying main ideas 

Chronological order in the narrative 

Now give a title to the rearranged narrative: 

D. Vocabulary 

I. Spelling words correctly 

Task 1: Read the following statements. Then work with your partner 
and decide which statements you agree with. 



110 



A good speller: 

(a) hears a new word and can associate the sounds with the right letters. 

(b) doesn' t remember how the word should look, and gets confused when he 
tries to write it down. 

(c) can break a word into its parts, and knows how to write the parts down. 

(d) can' t say which letter symbols represent which sound. 

(e) probably sees an image of the word in his mind, and "reads it off as he 
spells. 

Task 2: Are you a good speller? Read this passage from your little 
sister's notebook, and correct the spelling mistakes. 

A boy and a monkey 

Tim the Boy and his Monkey, Pistol, were accused of the Theft of a Ring. 
Well, Tim and Pistle were in a rest house and the Piple their irriated Pistle, and he 
landed on the person's head, who had the ring. They were cent to court and the 
Juge said he had stolen lady Margeret's ring. She had only Brought it that day 
and the Ring was very expensive, it cosed a lot of money. 

(i) Here are a few spelling strategies to help you spell better: 

1 . Look at the word carefully and pronounce it clearly, so that an association 
is made between its appearance and its sound. 

2 . Cover the word, and write it from memory. Try to see the word in your 
head. 

3. Look up spellings of words in a good dictionary. Learning to use an 
authentic or standard dictionary (like the Chambers Twentieth Century 
Dictionary or the English - English - Tamil Dictionary published by the 
Tamilnadu Text book Corporation), will help to develop your reference 
and research skills as well. 

4. Syllabification : Break the word into suitable units, usually syllables. 
e.g. caravan : ca-ra-van 

disappointment : dis-ap-point-ment 
carefully : care-ful-ly 

Syllabification shows that there are logical patterns at work in spelling. 

111 



(ii) Some commonly confused words are: "they're, there, their" 
The following sentences will help you understand them better. 

a. Where are they? on the table. 

b. Where are you going? I am going 

c. Whose book is that? It's book. 

(Hi) Some areas that cause difficulty to 'spellers': 

a. Some vowel combinations 'ie' - 'ei' - 'iou' and other complex combinations: 
relzeve, receive, pious 

b. Unusual words using 'y' as a vowel: rhythm, hymn 

c. Difficult words: diphtheria, diarrhoea, eczema 

d. Another common error is the 'single for double,' 'double for single' 
So, 'shining' becomes 'shinning' 

'dropped' becomes 'droped' 
'furry' becomes 'fury' 
'later' becomes 'latter' 

Task: Use the correct word to fill in the blank spaces. 

1 . Look, Shantha is going to (sleep/slip) from the table. 

2. Let's all (leave/live) together for the party. 

3. Could you lend me a (pin/pen), please? I have a test now. 

4. Be careful! This is where I slipped/slept. 

5 . The (debt/date) for the engagement is still to be decided 

6 . Deepak, please go to the shop and get me some (paper / pepper) . 

There's none in the kitchen. 

7 . Several students stood in the corridor and (chattered / chatted) 

like monkeys. 

II. Some commonly confused words 

Task 1: Here are pairs of words, which have the same sound but are 
different in meaning (also called Homophones). Work in pairs. 
Consult a dictionary if you are not sure of any word. 

1. The child the toy the window. 

(through, threw) 

2 . My mother received the which was from Bombay, for her birthday. 

(sent, scent) 

112 



3. The criminal was at the of the crime. 

(scene, seen) 

4. Juju was not to read the book 

(allowed, aloud) 

5. The workers spent the day repairing the in the water pipe. 

(whole /hole) 

6 . The children gave their mother no till she had given them a 

of the cake 

(piece /peace). 

Task 2: Use the clues to fill in the words. They sound similar but are 
different in meaning and spelling. 

1 . a female horse m 

the chief city official m 

2. light-coloured f_ 

money paid for bu s ticket f 

3. a strip of timber b 

tired, uninterested b 

4. completely w 

sacred h 

5. rough c 

a place for golf c 

6. a story t 

the rear end t 

7 . period of seven days w 

lacking strength w 

8. abucket p 

whitish in colour p 

Task 3: Select the correct word from the two given in brackets. 

1 . The elderly woman, though uninj ured, was (quiet, quite) shaken 

by her experience. 

2 . All (accept, except) the last few bogies of the Rajadhani Express 

were derailed. 

113 



3 . The accident happened very near the Sahara (desert, dessert) 

4. The engine was (stationary, stationery) because it had toppled 

onto its side. 

5 . The driver applied the brakes in the (vein, vain) hope that he 

might stop the engine. 

6. Nothing could (lessen, lesson) the impact of the hurtling engine. 

III. Pronunciation and Spelling 

(i) Read the following dialogue aloud: 

A : What do you have in your basket? 

B : Some papers and a ball. 

In the dialogue given above, the letter, 'a' is pronounced in different ways. 

e.g. what /B/ basket I A: I a /E/ 

have /G/ papers /el/ ball /C:/ 

Note: 
(a) 'a' has the pronunciation /B/ in spelling structures where it is preceded 

by 'w' or 'u' 

e.g. 



swan 


/swBn/ 


watch 


/wBtl/ 


quarrel 


/kwBrEl/ 


lental so 


und of the letter 


box 


/bBks/ 


mop 


/mBp/ 


rod 


/rBd/ 



e.g. 



(c) The sequence 'ou' can also have similar vowel qualities as (a) and 
(b)- 'ou' : /B/ 

e.g. cough : /kBf/ 

(d) Another similar sounding combination is 'au' which has the sound / B / 
e.g. because: /blkBz/ 

audible : /Cicttbl/ 

(e) 'ow' in the word 'knowledge' is pronounced /B/ 
e.g. knowledge : /nBUdZ/ 

knock : /nBk/ 

114 



(ii) Now look at the words 'boat' and 'though' . How are the sounds 'oa' and 
'ou' pronounced here? In both cases 'oa' in boat and 'ou' in 'though' have the 
sound realisation /EO/. 

Task: Given below are some words. Refer to a dictionary and find 
out how they are pronounced. In each row, circle the word, 
which sounds different. 

a. shot crochet knot 

b. bomb soul cod 

c. dough cot mould 

IV. Is it American or British? 
Read the given dialogue: 

Dee : and he said he bought his new car for five grandl He's 

gonna drive it in the race next month. 
MA : No kiddingl What kind is it? 
Dee : A BMW 
MA : Gee ! Are you sure? A BMW for five grand? Sounds pretty cheap 

tome! 
Dee : Well, I think that's what he said. 

MA : But they don't make a model for less than nine or ten thousand. 
Dee : Well. Come to think of it, it does sound awful cheap ! 

Do you notice some unfamiliar words like: 'grand', 'gonna', 
'kidding', 'cheap'? These are 'American' English expressions. Here is 
how you would say them in 'British' English: 

grand : a thousand 

gonna : going to 

kidding : joking 

Gee : an expression of surprise 

awful : awfully /very 

Some American (English) words and expressions are different from 
British (English) in spelling and form. 

Task 1: Given below is the American spelling for some words. Write 
the British spelling in the opposite column. The first one is 
done for you. 

115 



American 


British 


American 


British 


American 


British 


color 


colour 


traveler 




mold 




math 




ax 




skilful 




honor 




defense 




judgment 




enroll 




center 




focused 





Task 2: Write the British English word which means the same as the 
word given in American English, choosing from the words 
given in brackets. The first one is done for you. 

(maize, holiday, lift, goods, lorry, chemist, 
terminus, sweets, biscuit, porridge, chips, apartment) 



American 


British 


American 


British 


American 


British 


com 


maize 


oatmeal 




cracker 




candy 




druggist 




escalator 




depot 




freight 




french-fries 




vacation 




truck 




flat 





E. Study skills 

I. Using the Internet 

"In the past we had speech, then writing, and now, 'computer 
mediated language"'- Netspeak. 

Samuel Johnson sat on a rickety chair, surrounded by a 'chaos of borrowed 
books' out of which he compiled his famous Dictionary. 

James Murray worked in a little shed in his garden, surrounded by 
mountains of paper slips that would one day become the Oxford English Dictionary. 

And today, there is the compilation of e-mails, games and chat logs - 
'Language and the Internet' . 

The Internet opens the windows to the world. Through it we can get 
information from any part of the world, communicate with anyone, talk to anyone, 
watch films, listen to music or play games. 

116 



Taskl: Do you know what the following stand for? 

INTERNET 

WWW 

Task 2: Using the 'google' search engine (http:llwwwlgoogle.co.inl) 

(i) search for web-sites on short stories or poems on farmers. 
Download, read and enjoy. 

(ii) surf for information on Samuel Johnson, Webster, James 
Murray and see how they have contributed to the English 
language. 

H. E-mail 

The e-mail (Electronic mail) has replaced the conventional letter, as a means 
of communication. The e-mail is different from the letter in that it is precise and 
short. It does away with the traditional conventions of letter writing and saves 
time for the writer as well as the receiver. 

Now read this letter which Outhakutty's son Munna wrote to his friend 
Susay. 

Chennai 

15 th Sept. 03 

My dear Susay, 

I have some good news for you. I have secured admission in the Agricultural 
College at Coimbatore. All the formalities have been completed. I have paid my 
fees and got my clothes all packed. I have also got a room in the hostel. 

I will be leaving for Coimbatore on 20 th September by the Nilgiris Express, 
with my father. I would be most grateful if you could arrange for our stay at a 
reasonably priced hotel, for the 2 1 st and 22 nd . 

I hope you will be there at the station. 

I hope I will hear from you soon. 

Yours affectionately, 
Munna 

117 



Later, Munna decided to send the letter by e-mail. 



To: SusayMenon 



From: Munna Outhakutty 



email: sm2000@ sathyam.net.in 



Subject: Coming to Coimbatore 



Secured admission at the Agricultural College, Coimbatore. Reaching 
Coimbat :>re on 21 st Sept. 2003 by Nilgiri Express. PI book a room at a 

reasonably priced hotel for 2 days. Will U meet us arthe station? 

Munna 




V 7 ^^ 

Essential details Abbreviations 

Task 1: What other changes do you notice? 
Why is the e-mail so popular? 

( 1 ) because it makes communication almost instant 

(2) it is less laborious to write 
When writing an e-mail, please note: 

(i) You can use short forms, symbols, abbreviations that are recognisable 

(ii) receiver's / sender's address, date, need not be used as they are already 
programmed in the computer 

(iii) the communication resembles a message / formal / informal letter, depending 
on the purpose and the receiver 

Task 2: Now write an e-mail on the following: 

You have visited a farm where they use only environment friendly 
products. Write to your father telling him about it. 

(You could mention: no chemical use - organic farming - use 
of vegetable mulch - bio-products - healthier environment - 
cleaner water etc). Add some ideas of your own. 

118 



Task 3: Outhakutty sent a message through his newly acquired 
computer to Subbyrami, inquiring about tractor parts. Write 
the reply that he received. 



From 




To 




E-mail 




Subject 







F. Grammar 

Conditionals 

Read this advice which a doctor is giving to a difficult patient. 

Doctor : Take these tablets if you are in pain. 

Patient : Can I take one every day? 

Doctor : No, don't take them unless you are in pain. 

Patient : But, when I have pain, will one be enough? 

Doctor : Take one every hour till the pain goes away. 

To indicate a conditional clause, we can use Hf or words like 'unless' 
'when 1 Hill' , etc., which also serve the same purpose. 

Task 1: Use 'unless', 'when', 'till' or 'until' in the following sentences. 

1. The recorder won't work you put some batteries in. 

2. You can't start the project you have permission. 

3. Let us wait our parents arrive. 

4. We could go by an auto you want to walk. 

5. I can't enjoy the music you stop talking. 

Task 2: Rewrite the sentences below using one of the following. 

'Unless', 'otherwise', 'incase', 'though', 'until', 'till' 

1 . If I had seen you there, I would have said 'hello' . 

2. If I go to America, I will definitely visit your cousin. 

119 



3 . If you don' t learn German, you cannot work in Frankfurt. 

4. We stayed up all night but we were not tired at all. 

5 . You can vote only after you have completed twenty-one. 

6. If the rain stops, we can go out after breakfast. 

7 . In spite of the damage to the aircraft, no one was inj ured. 

Task 3: Match the two halves of the sentences. 

1. I won't wear my raincoat 1. if you take a taxi. 

2. I'm sure we'll enjoy the film 2. as soon as the guests arrive. 

3. Would you like some warm milk 3. unless it rains. 

4. You will probably be in time 4. before you go to bed? 

5. We will have dinner 5. even if any one comes to the door. 

6. You won't hear the dog bark 6. though we have missed the first 

15 minutes. 

Task 4: Rewrite the following sentences using the words given in 
brackets: 

You will go to the doctor tomorrow and I will look after Prem and Prakash. 
(When) 

Sona won't go to bed. Her father will get home at 10.00 p.m. 
(Until) 

Nana has to complete his home-work. He can't go out. 
(Until after) 



The shop-keeper will open the shop again. The damage has to be repaired. 
(As soon as) 

The children will be late. I will meet them at the bus-stop. 
(If) 

Aunt Susy is going to write to me. I will give you all her news. 
(When) 

It will be raining next week. We will be in Dehradun. 
(While) 

You won't get home till midnight. Your mother will be very worried. 

(If) 

120 



Task 5: Work in pairs. Would your life be different if you were living 
in a rural/urban area? Tell each other in what ways things 
would be different. Use words like 'unless', 'though', 
'otherwise', 'in case', etc. 

e.g. If I was living in a village, I would not worry about pollution. 

Unless 

If I was living in a city, I would not worry about transportation. 

Task 6: You have entered a contest advertised on TV and are thinking 
and dreaming about the various prizes you might win. 

1 st prize 5 th prize A 3 rd prize 




Which prizes (mention atleast 3) would you like to win? 

If you were offered cash instead, what would you spend it on? Write 
about the various possibilities. 

(Use conditionals like 'unless', 'though', 'till', 'until', 'otherwise', 
'in case', etc.) 



121 



G. Writing 

Writing a diary 

Anne Frank's diary, written in hiding from the Nazis, is world famous. It 
contains the first person account of her day-to-day life and her opinions and 
belief. Here is a very brief extract from it. 

March 1945 

Bergen - Belson Cone. Camp 

Dear Kitty, 

I'm not at all well today I want to be useful 

or give pleasure to people around me who yet don't really know me. I want to 
go on living even after my death How won- 
derful it is that nobody need wait a single moment before starting to improve the 

world Think of all the beauty still 

left around you and be happy 

Bye, Kitty, Goodnight 
Anne 

Anne Frank addressed her diary as "Kitty". Anne Frank died of typhus 
shortly after. 

Task: Refer to the story 'The Farmer'. Kesavan Nair, the farmer, 
loses his land at the end of the story, yet he goes back to his 
"fifty" every single day and even supervises the work there. 
Write a page from his diary giving an account of his activities 
during the day. 

5 th Sept. 
Vaikom 
7.00 p.m. 

I have just returned from the fields. I feel very tired. I have been standing 
in the sun all day. That Outhakutty does not know much about the plants. I told 
him one week back that 



Kesavan 



122 



Punctuation 

Why do we use punctuation marks? 

What would happen if we didn't use them, when writing? 

How can we use them appropriately? 

We use punctuation marks in writing. What do we use while speaking? 

Task 1: Work in pairs. Read the given sentences aloud and use 
punctuation marks where necessary. 

A bank robber wrote all his instructions on a piece of paper he did this 
rather than shout the cashier read the piece of paper it demanded money in a 
paper bag when the robber was told that no paper bags were available he fled. 

Task 2: Work with a partner. Read the sentences and decide which 
ones are punctuated correctly. Indicate with a(S ) 

1 . Its' a nice day today, isn't it? 
It's a nice day today, isn't it? 

2 . The movie star was a tall dark handsome man 
The movie star was a tall, dark handsome man. 

3 . If you want to meet the Manager, make an appointment 
If you want to meet the Manager make an appointment. 

4. My grandmother on the other hand has a sweet tooth 
My grandmother, on the other hand, has a sweet tooth. 

5 . That' s right ! she said 
"That's right!" she said. 

Task 3: Rewrite the following passage, inserting the correct punctuation. 

1. An enterprising barber once used a lack of punctuation to boost his 
business. Outside his shop he displayed a notice, "What do you think I'll shave 
you for nothing and give you a free glass of juice". A customer was duly tempted 
by it. Having had his shave he demanded his free drink. The barber explained 
that he was certainly offering no free juice. 

What punctuation did the barber give in his notice to justify him- 
self and what punctuation had the customer given it? 

123 



2. A hundred people whispered the President. 

3 . Why mother exclaimed Dileep I don't know. 

4. The woman was joking half an hour after her husband died. 

5 . What do you think I work for nothing and pay for the pleasure of it. 

6 . What is the formula for water asked the Science teacher of a class of 
juniors he picked out a boy to answer HIJKLMNO spelt out the boy 
what's that cried the master the boy looked at him in obvious surprise then slowly 
repeated the letters what on earth are you saying who gave you that funny idea 
asked the teacher you sir was the boys reply you said in class yesterday that the 
formula for water was H to O. 

H. Occupational competency 

Look at this advertisement 

It's not that bad being a tortoise. 





They do live to a very old age. They suffer few mechanical breakdowns. 
They have a poor appetite. We know that they are not the swiftest. But need we 
remind you of the story of the tortoise and the hare? 

Tizron Mobile. The car that wins! Buy yours today! 

Advertisements or 'Ads' are generally used to sell products. 

Task 1: Name the products the following ads are selling. Are they all 
selling a product? 



Orient Now 

Ever wanted to 'get away 
from it all'? The magic of 
Himalayas, Nepal, Kashmir 
and Mysterious China. All 
the treasures of the Orient 
await you. . . Free brochure 
for the discerning traveller. 
Phone (0015) 381 for details 
today. 



JINJA 

Herbs and Spices for health, 
medicinal and culinary 
purposes. Dried herbs and 
spices, natural shampoos, 
soaps and toilet preparation. 
Special gift sets. Telephone 
or write for our catalogue: 
JINJA 10, Chen Drive, 
Lower City, (0223)5131 



124 



Use your talents to make 
money. Write for a living or 
for fun. We offer courses in 
journalism, writing articles, 
short stories, poetry. 
Moderate fees. Free 
Prospectus, from The 
Advanced School of 
Journalism, Halhahalli, 
Karnataka. 



Wanted experienced Social 
Worker. Preferably full-time 
to work in Well- Woman 
Association. Evening and 
weekened work. Salary Rs. 
10,000/- Apply to Well- 
Woman Association P O Box 
1007, Cheng Town. 



Task 2: Discuss together: the language used in ads - the descriptive 
words - short phrases rather than sentences - the colour used 
- the lettering - and the catchy caption for a title. How do all 
these help? 

Task 3: Now work in groups of three and design an ad. After you have 
completed it, describe your product to your class. 

I. Strategic competency 

How observant are you? 

Heard on the Rajdhani Express: 




125 



Task 1: Travelling by the Rajadhani you heard the sentences given 
above, spoken by various people. But there are mistakes in 
every sentence. Can you spot the mistakes? Rewrite the sen- 
tences correctly in the space below: 

e.g. 1 . What ! A lady is getting in ! 

2. 

3. 

4. 

5. 

6. 

7. 

8. 

Task 2: Here are a few more sentences. Correct the wrong ones. 

1. A Have you seen the film, 'The Titanic'? 

B: Oh, yes. It's about the big ship which drowned. 

2. A Are you doing a lot of gardening, now? 

B: A little. I've planted some roses in front and some brinjals in my 
backside. 

3 . A Why don't you enter Lekha's name for the elocution? 
B: Her pronounce in English is not so good. 

4. A Do you exercise everyday? 

B: Everyday now I used to go swimming. 

5 . A Was you pleased to see your uncle again? 
B: Yes ! I was meeting him after five years ! 

6. A So why don't you learn the language? 

B: Because, if I want to learn the language, I must go to German. 

7. A I'm always wanted to visit Rome. 
B: Me too! 

126 



Task 3: Look at the following hoardings. Then say what's wrong with 
each. The mistake could be in the spelling or form of a word. 



SUITINGS: SHIRTINGS 
AND PANTINGS 



Dyears and Dricleaners. 
We die for you. 



Large Office Toilet 10000 
Sq. ft Rs.7500/- per month 
Phone: 0121 462 6613 



Bill-stickers will be persecuted 



THE MADRAS PLAYERS 

resents a play "English to 

English" by Bobby Ryan on 

SAT. 25 th Sept. 



STRESSED? Try Our 

Aromatherapy Massage Yoga 

Acupuncture 

All our therapists are strained and 

experienced. 

Phone:044-287253112 



Task 4: Work in pairs. Spot the errors in the following sentences. 
Decide why there are errors and correct them. 

1. A Matrimonial Ad. 2. A news item 



28 year male, tall, slimy and 
intelligent. Non-smoker, 
professional with own house. 
Seeks alliance with smart, 
educated, working girl. 



3. Situations Vacant 



HEAD - WAITER 
WANTED 

Wanted for a five star hotel 
- Apply to Manager 
Experience essential, with a 
good knowledge of food 
and beverages. The 
successful applicant should 
have a smart and peasant 
appearance. 



Karate Club Praised for 
Community Service. Members of 
the Karate Club were 
congratulated by the Mayor for 
the work their movement does to 
help disable people in the local 
community. 



4. A Health Ad. 



Chengelpet Clinic for 
Better Health 
For better health join our ANT- 
SMOKING CLINIC. Write to 
the Director of Health Services, 
Chengelpet, Tamil Nadu. 

127 



5. A news item 



Search Abandoned. Police at Surat yesterday called off a search for a 
55 year old woman who is believed to have frowned after falling into 
the swollen river Brahmaputra. The woman had been receiving 
treatment for depression . 



J. Creative competency 

What is your opinion? 

People are lonely in large cities: Agree / Disagree 

Task 1: Read the questionnaire given and tick the Agree /Disagree 
column. 





Agree 


Disagree 


1 . People in cities usually live alone. 






2. Most people in cities go to work. 






3 . People in cities usually have some 
domestic help. 






4. People find city-life expensive. 






5. Commuting to work in cities is tiring. 






6 . Most people in cities have a very hectic 
social life. 






7 . A few men and women live in joint families. 






8 . People are generally too busy to socialise. 






9 . People only go out during weekends . 






10. People generally do not go out alone because 
it is not safe. 






1 1 . The only form of entertainment most people 
have is the TV. 






1 2 . People living in cities do not make friends easily 
because they mistrust people. 







128 



Task 2: Work in pairs and compare your opinions with your partner 's. 
Try to justify your opinions. 

Task 3: Now write a short article expressing your views about living 
in the city. You should support your views with examples. 
Organise your ideas in the form of notes first. Arrange them 
in paragraphs when writing. 

A Talk show 

In this project, you will make and produce your own radio programme. 

Task 1: Read the following local radio programme, which will give 
you ideas for your own programme, and answer the questions 
that follow: 

(Sound of music fading away ) 

This is Radio Ginger. Good Morning, listeners ! Welcome to an exciting 
morning of news - interviews, jokes, music and much, much more! Your 
presenters today are Rachna and Rahul! 

Rachna : Hello, listeners -Good morning, I'm Rachna and I'm here 

with lots of interesting news for you. The highlight of today's 
news is the sighting of an Extra Terrestrial. Here is a report, 
(music) A young boy, while collecting vegetables in his field 
saw a pair of enormous eyes staring at him. On going closer 
the boy saw eyes like jelly fish with faint tentacles around 
them. The sunken eyes stared at the boy and then put out a 
long finger. The boy shrieked and scrambled backward while 
the 'creature' jumped in the other direction, emitting an 
ultrasonic squeak. When the boy, finally pulled himself together 
and looked again, the creature had vanished! Now over to 
Rahul. But watch out for ET! 

Rahul : Good Morning, Listeners. This is your friend Rahul and I'm 

here with the riddles for the day ! So, sharpen your wits and 
get ready to answer them. Get your paper and pencil ready 
and work out each letter. It's a word that means something 
everybody needs. 

"My first letter is in RUSH and also in STOOL 

129 



Rachna 



Ms.Sita 
Rachna 

Ms.Sita 
Rachna 

Ms.Sita 



Rachna 
Ms.Sita 

Rachna 
Ms.Sita 
Rachna 

Ms.Sita 



My second in KNACK and also in SALE 

My third in LEAF and also in ROOF 

My fourth's in FREE and also in SEA 

My fifth's in TIGHT and also in TREAT 

My last's in SMELLY and also in YOUNG" 

Ha, Ha, Ha! Did you get that right? Good for you. Now for 

some music. A request from our listener in Pattabiram who 

wants to dedicate this song to her friend in Chalakudi. Here is 

your song and after that over to Rachna. 

(Sound of music fading away) 

It's time for 'Meet the Celebrity' , our regular feature. We 
have today in our midst a national awardee - Ms. Sita, who 
recently got the national award for Best Teacher. Let's 
discover the real person 'behind the chalk and duster and 
blackboard'. 

Good Morning Ms. Sita! Congratulations on getting the 
national award, ma'am. 
Thank You. 

I'd like to ask you some personal questions Ms. Sita, if it is all 
right. 

Provided it isn't too personal, I don't mind. 
Tell me, Ms. Sita, as a young girl at school, did you ever get 
into trouble? 

(laughing) Have you ever thought about how we teachers 
catch students at their tricks? I was also up to similar pranks 
at school. My teachers weren't always happy with me. 
How do you spend your evenings, Ma'am? 
I usually spend it with my family. We read, talk or go out 
together. 

Do you have any special interests? 
I love all forms of Arts - Music - dance- painting - films. 
Tell us, Ms. Sita, if you hadn't become a teacher, what would 
you have done? 

I've always wanted to live on a farm and grow my own 
vegetables, and paddy and keep cows. Perhaps that's what I 
would have done! 



130 



Rachna : Thank you, Ms.Sita.lt was wonderful talking to you. OK. 

Listeners ! We're running out of time. Till tomorrow this time, 

then Goodbye 

Rahul : Namaskar Vanakkam 

(music .... fading away) 

a. Why are there two presenters? 

b. What is the presenter's role? 

c. Do you like the presenter's style? Yes / No. Give reasons. 

d. Why is the content mentioned in the outline right at the beginning of the 
programme? 

e . Is there enough variety of content? 

Task 2: Take turns and present the above programme to the class. 

Task 3: Now it is your turn. Your class will write and produce its own 
radio programme on any of the following topics. 

• Jokes, short plays 

• Interviews 

• Games 

• Advertisements 

• Special reports : road safety, exams 

• Entertainment reviews: music, films, books 

Here are some tips to help you: 

(a) decide the length of your programme 

(b) select two presenters (those who have lively personalities and voices) 

(c) discuss and agree regarding the proposals for the programme 

(d) keep a record of items agreed upon, and their length 

(e) make sure there is enough variety 

(f) decide on the sequence of items 

(g) decide who will write the script 

(h) decide the day when the whole programme is to be produced (1-2 periods) 

(i) select a programme producer who will co-ordinate the entire programme 
and will also be the compere of the show. 

All the Best! 

131 



Self evaluation : 

I. Write sentences to bring out the difference in meaning between the 
words in pairs: 

principal - principle 

at last - at least 

affect - effect 

refuse - deny 

rob - steal 

//. Rewrite the following sentences using 'unless': 

1 . If he has time he will attend the meeting . 

2 . If it does not rain next month, there will be water scarcity. 

3 . If you heat ice, it melts . 

4. If you finish your home work, you can watch T.V. 

5 . If you study well, you pas s . 



132 



POEM 

THE SOLITARY REAPER 

Behold her, single in the field, 
Yon solitary Highland Lass ! 
Reaping and singing by herself; 
Stop here, or gently pass ! 
Alone she cuts and binds the grain, 
And sings a melancholy strain; 

listen! for the vale profound 
Is overflowing with the sound. 

No nightingale did ever chaunt 
More welcome notes to weary bands 
Of travellers in some shady haunt, 
Among Arabian sands: 
A voice so thrilling ne'er was heard 
In spring-time from the cuckoo-bird, 
Breaking the silence of the seas 
Among the farthest Hebrides. 

Will no one tell me what she sings? 
Perhaps the plaintive numbers flow 
For old, unhappy, far-off things, 
And battles long ago: 
Or is it some more humble lay, 
Familiar matter of to-day? 
Some natural sorrow, loss, or pain, 
That has been, and may be again! 

What'er the theme, the maiden sang 
As if her song could have no ending; 

1 saw her singing at her work, 
And o'er the sickle bending - 
I listen' d motionless and still; 
And, as I mounted up the hill, 
The music in my heart I bore 
Long after it was heard no more. 



- William Wordsworth 



133 



William Wordsworth, an eminent poet of nature, was born on 7th April, 
1 770, at Cockermouth, Cumberland, in the Lake District. Though he lost 
his parents at a very young age, his uncle gave him a good education. His 
meeting with Samuel Taylor Coleridge in 1 795, proved to be a turning point 
in his life. They, together published, 'The Lyrical Ballads' in 1798, 
Wordsworth succeeded Robert Southey as Poet Laureate in 1843 and 
remained in office till his death in April 1850. 

Glossary 



yon 


: yonder, beyond 


highland 


: Scotland 


vale 


: valley 


Hebrides 


: a group of islands 


plaintive 


: sad 


chaunt 


: chant 


sickle 


: a tool used for cutting grass and crops 



Comprehension 

I. Indicate your choice by putting a (V) 

1 . The reaper is 

a. cutting the grain and binding it 

b. singing a song 

c. cutting and binding the grain as well as singing 

2. The reaper's song 

a. was sad 

b. joyous 

c. neither 

3 . The song was about 

a. some recent tragedy 

b. a battle 

c. the poet is not sure 

4. The poet stopped to listen because 

a. he was tired 

b. the song was deeply touching 

c. he had heard the song before 

134 



//. Pick out words from the poem, which describe the reaper's song. 
HI. Pick out the words from the poem which mean 'solitary'. 

IV. Answer the following with reference to the context: 

1. 'No nightingale did ever chaunt 
More welcome notes to weary bands.' 

2. 'The music in my heart I bore 
Long after it was heard no more' . 

V Appreciation questions 

1 . When we make comparisons, we say "this is like " 

(something else) 

e.g. 'This child is gentle as a lamb." These are called similes. An implied 
simile is a metaphor. 

In the poem, what does the poet say about the reaper's song and about 
her voice? What does he compare them to? 

2 . Poets and musicians generally believe that the most thrilling / beautiful songs 
are the saddest ones. Do you agree? Discuss with your partner. 

3 . Which stanza of this poem did you like best? Learn it and recite it to your 
class. 

4. Can you think of poems / songs in your mother-tongue that reapers sing? 
Share your information with your class. Think about festive occasions 
too. 

5 . Have you seen reapers harvesting grain? Are they usually alone or in groups? 
See if you can find any similarities in the reapers you have seen and the one 
mentioned in this poem. Do they sing or do they work silently? 



135 



UNIT IV 

COMPETENCIES 

A LISTENING: Listening to short talks and taking notes 

B SPEAKING: Conversing at the restaurant 
Conversing at the bank 

C READEVG: Understanding conceptual meaning 
Understanding discourse organisation 

D VOCABULARY: Forming words using different prefixes/suffixes 
Using compound words 
Using words formed by clipping, blending and back-formation 

E STUDY SKILLS: Transferring information (verbal/non-verbal texts) 

F GRAMMAR: Using primary and modal auxiliaries as tense markers in 
question tags, short answers, etc. 

G WRITEVG: Summarising 

Writing articles for school magazine 

H OCCUPATIONAL COMPETENCY: Fining in proforma (DD Challan) 

I STRATEGIC COMPETENCY: Coining new words 

J CREATWE COMPETENCY: Writing a letter to the editor 
Writing the script for a school play 



136 



A. Listening 

Listen to a short talk by your teacher. 

(The teacher reads) 
The following are the main and sub-points of the 'talk': 

Dreams mirror one's image 

• Dreams reveal our present worries 

• They reflect our past anxieties 

• Dreams reflect our innermost feelings 

Different kinds of dreams 

• Funny 

• Nightmarish 

• Exciting 

• Predicting 

• Those that fulfil one's innermost desires 

Dreams versus reality 

• Dreams are a perfect escape from the harsh realities of the world 

• Dreams are unreal and momentary 

• Dreams are only a mirage, an illusion 

Conclusion: 

Dreams are a reflection of our image. Dreams appear to be real; but are 
not. Dreams are unreal. 

Opinion: 

Dreams are a part of life, for life itself is a dream. The only difference is 
that it is a dream in a state of being awake. Dreams may be unreal. But, they are 
the shadow of one's thoughts. Without the shadow, the essence of reality will be 
lost. 

The main points are the main ideas that are focussed in a talk. It is around 
this, that the entire talk revolves. 

The sub-points are the supporting ideas, that elaborate on the main idea. 

The conclusion is the summing-up of the main/sub-points of the talk. 

137 



While the main points, sub-points and conclusion are culled out from the 
talk (of the speaker), the opinion is that of the individual (listener). It is a reaction 
to the ideas out-lined by the speaker. It can either support or contradict the 
speaker's views. 

Task: Now you will listen to another short talk by your teacher. Listen 
carefully and take down the main-points, sub-points, 
conclusion and opinion, as shown above. 

B. Speaking 

I. You are one of the members of the child-jury, to choose the most 
favourite theme of children in children's books - adventure, fantasy, 
science fiction, etc. After a formal review of various books and their 
themes, you go to a restaurant. 

At the restaurant 



Asha 

Lekha 

Eswari 

Asha 

Lekha 

Eswari 

Lekha 

Asha 

Eswari 

Bearer 

Lekha 

Eswari 
Asha 
Lekha 
Bearer 



Eswari 
Lekha 
Eswari 
Asha 



Shall we sit at that table, near the window? 

Yes, we shall. 

What shall we have first! 

I think I'll have some cheese-sandwiches first. 

Let me have a look at the menu and then decide. 

/ would like to have a mushroom pizza. 

I prefer masala dosa. 

Let's call the bearer and place the order. 

Bearer, could we place the order? 

Yes, Ma'm. What would you like to have? 

Please bring us one plate of cheese-sandwiches, one mushroom 

pizza and one masala dosa. 

What else would you two like to have! 

Samosas. 

Yes, and some potato chips too. 

Yes, Ma'm. 

(The dishes are served and they eat.) 

Asha, please pass me that glass of water. 

Eswari, would you like to have some more chips? 

No, thank you. 

Lekha, that samosa is for you. Please have it. 
138 



Eswari : Care for some coffeel 

Lekha : Tea, forme. 

Eswari : Asha, what would you preferl 

Asha : / would rather like to have vanilla ice cream. 

Eswari : Bearer! Please get us one cup of tea and one cup of vanilla ice 

cream. Do you have rose milk? 

Bearer : Yes, Ma'm. It's available. 

Eswari : Then, I would like to have a glass of rose milk, please. 

(After they finish.) 

Eswari : Bearer! Please bring us the bill. 

Asha : Eswari, Lekha and me shall wait in the lobby. You can pay the 

bill and join us there. 
Eswari : Yes, I'll do that. 

(Asha and Lekha leave. The bearer brings the bill and Eswari pays.) 

Eswari : Thank you, Sir! 

Bearer : Thank you, Ma'm! 

(Note: I'll have, I would like to have, and I prefer, are different ways of 
expressing what one wishes to eat/drink. 

Place the order means to state what you want, to the bearer. 

Please bring us and Please get us, are used to request the bearer to 
fetch you something. 

/ would rather like to have is used to state your choice or preference 
over something else. 

Do you have is used to ask, What is available? 

Task 1: Take turns and practise the above dialogue. 

Task 2: You have written an essay on 'My vision for the future of my 
country', for a National Essay Competition. On winning the 
first prize, you receive the award from the President, at New 
Delhi. Your parents accompany you, and after the felicitation, 
they take you to a restaurant. Using the words given in italics 
in the above dialogue, prepare a similar conversation. Take 
turns and practise speaking that conversation. 

139 



II. On reaching Chennai, from Delhi, you would like to open a Savings 
Bank account and deposit the cash prize that you have received. 

At the bank 

Arun : Excuse me, Sir. I would like to open an SB account. 

Could you tell me the procedure, please? 
Bank : First of all, fill in this form. It contains details regarding 

Manager your name, age, address, etc. Then, somebody will have to 

introduce you - somebody who is already an account-holder in 

this bank. 
Arun : Sir, my headmaster has an account here. He will be here shortly. 

Bank : Well, that's settled then. You will also have to affix one 

Manager passport size photograph on the passbook, after it is issued to 

you. 
Arun : Yes, Sir. I will do that. 

Bank : Remember, your signature is very important. You must 

Manager put three specimen signatures, and you must always take care 

to sign in the same manner. 
Arun : Fine, Sir! I'll remember that. Sir, what is the minimum deposit? 

Bank : You will have to deposit a minimum of Rs. 500/- in your 

Manager account. 

Arun : Will I be given a cheque-book"? 

Bank : For that, the minimum balance ought to be Rs. 1000/- 

Manager 
Arun : Alright, Sir. Incase, I want to have a fixed deposit, what will be 

the rates of interest! 
Bank : Our rates of interest will be 6% p. a. 

Manager 

(Arun fills the form and hands it over to the Bank Manager.) 

Arun : Sir, here is the form. I have filled it. Where should I pay the 

money, Sir? 

Bank : At the teller's. See! It's the counter over there. You will also 

Manager have to fill the pay-in slip, and hand it over to the teller, along 

with the money. After depositing the money, you can collect your 
passbook. I will credit the entry into your account. 



140 



Arun : Thank you, Sir! 

Task 1: Practise the dialogue given above as a role-play. 

Task 2: Your school is conducting an English exhibition. You have 
been asked to set up different booths -post-office, restaurant, 
bank, police-station, etc., and give model conversations, as 
samples of interaction in these places. You and your friend 
are in charge of the booth 'At the bank'. Prepare a dialogue, 
using the phrases given in italics in the above conversation 
and present it as a role-play. (The dialogue can focus on how 
to open an account in a bank, how to get a demand-draft, 
etc.) You can use other phrases like, "Can I have a DD challan 
please?" "Could you help me fill this challan?" "Could you 
tell me in which counter I have to get my DD ? " "How much 
surcharge do I have to pay for Rs. 1 000/- ? " 

C. Reading 

Pre-reading: 

A. Answer the following by ticking the appropriate box. 

often sometimes never 
1. 



Have you indulged in malpractices 
in examinations? 


□ 


□ 


□ 


Have you seen anyone copying in 
the exam? 


□ 


□ 


□ 


Have you used someone's essays to 


□ 


□ 


□ 



3. 

prepare your own? 

4. Have you copied passages from 
another person's work to prepare 
your assignment? 

5 . Have you submitted another 
person's work as your own 
without his/her knowledge? 

Discuss in groups: 

1. Is it wrong to copy someone's work and/or use his/her ideas without 
acknowledgement or permission? 

2. Who is the loser. - The one who copies or the one whose work is copied 

without his/her knowledge? why? 

° 141 



IV. THE HELPING HAND 

- E.M. Forster 

When Lady Anstey's book on Giovanni da Empoli was published, 
Mr.Henderson found in it much that needed forgiveness. His friend did not 
write as charmingly as she talked: a horrid slime of culture oozed over her 
style, her criticisms were affected, her enthusiasms abominable. This he could 
have forgiven; but how could he forgive the subject matter? The dear lady 
had appropriated, without acknowledgement, facts and theories for which 
he, and he alone, was responsible. He had studied Giovanni da Empoli for 
years, and the premature fruit of his labours now lay upon the breakfast 
table - a little apple-green book, four shillings net, being one of Messrs. 
Angerstein's series of Pocket Painters. 

Mrs. Henderson, a devoted wife, was turning over the leaves with a 
smile upon her face, for she was pleased that the words of Lady Anstey had 
been printed on such heavy paper. She knew nothing of the shameful 
plagiarism, her interest in art being sympathetic rather than intelligent: she 
was always glad when her friends and her husband got on in it, just as she 
was glad when her son got on at school. 

"What a long list of books she has read to write it!" she observed. 
"Did you know she could read German? And when did she go to Italy? 

Wasn't Empoli the place you made us go to the dirty hotel where we 

had to hunt the chickens out of the bedroom window?" 

"Yes," replied Mr. Henderson, remembering with anguish the nights at 
Empoli which he had spent and Lady Anstey had not. 

"Why did we go there? I've forgotten." 

"I had things to look up in the archives." He held up the newspaper as 
a screen. 

"I think you look up too much. Here's Lady Anstey who a litle time 
back knew no more about Italian art than I do, and yet look! I wish you'd 
write a little book like this. I'm sure you could do it." 

"I haven't the knack of putting things brightly." He never said all he thought 
about the Pocket Painters and similar editions, believing that anything which 
induces people to look at pictures has its value. 

142 



"Yes: I dare say it's all superficial and wrong." 

He answered with some animation, "What makes you think so?" 

"Because I mistrust new theories not that I should have known there 

was a theory. But she says there is one in the preface." 

"Giovanni da Empoli," said Mr. Henderson eagerly, "is one of the great 
puzzles of the Quattrocento. It is highly probable from internal and external 
evidence that many pictures attributed to other painters should be given to him." 

"Cut your bread and butter, dear, do not bite it," said Mrs. Henderson to 
their son. 

"If we take one of the Pieros in the National Gallery, the portrait in the 
Poldi Pezzoli at Milan, the so-called Baldovinetti at Naples, and the cassoni 
attributed to Pesellino, we notice in all a certain " 

"Empoli is a quanit old town not untinged with the modern spirit,'" 
interrupted their son, who was reading out of Lady Anstey's book in the nasal 

twang that is considered humorous by the young. '"Here in 1409' then a 

long note saying why not in 1429 " 

"Exactiy," said his father. 

'" in 1409 young Giovanni was born, here, when not on his travels, he 

lived, and here he died in 1473. Our painter never married. Of his six children 
four '" 

"Don't read at meals, dear," said his mother, taking the book. 

"This is a great surprise to me and a great pleasure. I never thought Lady 
Anstey had it in her." 

No more she had. The book was the work of Mr. Henderson. He had no 
one to blame but himself. Lady Anstey had said, "I want to write a book about 
Giovanni da Empoli: tell me everything you know." and he had told her, 
cautiously at first in barren statements, then, as he grew warm, infusing the facts 
with life, till at last the whole theory stood up before her delighted eyes. "Tell 
it me again," she said, for she was not quick at following, and he had told it 
her again and she had made notes of it, and he had placed his own notes at 
her disposal. 



143 



He reminded himself that facts are universal property, and it is no mat- 
ter who gives them to the world. But ideas - should there not be some 
copyright in ideas? He had only meant to stimulate Lady Anstey, not to equip 
her. However, she had Virgil on her side, and Moliere and Shakespeare, 
and all the ancient Greeks who had taken everything and said nothing to 
anybody, and splendid fellows they were. 

She was perfectly open when they next met, greeting him with "And 
here is someone else to whom I owe more than I can say." For her book was 
a success, and Messrs. Angerstein had asked her to do one on Botticelli. 

"I'm so glad he's been of use," said Mrs. Henderson, imagining herself 
to be engaged in conventional civilities. "I never knew he had studied the 
man." For Mr. Henderson had decided to bear his burden in silence, and 
neither to his wife nor to anyone else did he give one hint of his mortification. 
He had in him something of the saint, and knew it would be wrong as well as 
undignified to repine. 

' 'And now tell me all about Botticelli,' ' said Lady Anstey. But Mr. Henderson 
told very little about Botticelli. He regarded Lady Anstey with frozen admira- 
tion, almost with terror, as a being devoid of conscience and consciousness. 
They contiued great friends, but he saw her as seldom as possible. 

Her book, in spite of its popular form, made a considerable impression in 
artistic circles, and she was soon drawn into the congenial and lucrative atmo- 
sphere of controversy. In a fortunate hour Sir William Magnus disagreed with 
her, and a duel ensued, conducted with courtesy on his side and spirit on hers. 
Wisely refraining from venturing into new fields, she contented herself with re- 
peating the statements she had made in her book. Mrs. Henderson, who always 
followed anything personal, was able to write her a hearty letter of congratulation 
on her victory. 

Mr. Henderson did not write. The triumph of his theory gave him 
no pleasure, for it had triumphed in a mangled form. Lady Anstey had 
wielded it fairly well, but she had missed all the subtleties, she had spoiled 
the purity of its outline. Yet she had not spoiled it enought to justify his 
publishing it anew, under his own name. 

144 



He suffered a good deal, though he trained himself to laugh at the 
irony of the situation. He would like to have found some one to laugh 
with, but all his friends were embroiled on one side or the other, and he 
could not trust them to keep silent. As for his wife, she did not believe 
in irony. Mean while the book ran through several editions, and there 
was a rumour that the powers that be in the National Gallery were 
troubled, and meditated changing the label on the Piero della Francesca. 

By the time Professor Rinaldi came to England, Mr. Henderson was 
tired of laughing and needed sympathy. Rinaldi, whom Mrs. Henderson called 
the Italian, was a man of great learning and artistic insight, who had become 
so disgusted with controversies over beauty that he had left Rome and re- 
tired to the curatorship of a small provincial gallery. There he lived, or as 
others said rotted, studying continually because he could not help it, but 
avowing his intention of never publishing again. 

Here was a man to whom Mr.Henderson could speak freely. They were 
old friends, and he determined to pay him a visit in London. 

"Do, "said Mrs. Henderson ,"and I will finish off the spring cleaning." 

Mr. Henderson left on the Thursday, and Mrs. Henderson turned out the 
dining room. On Friday she did the drawing room. On Saturday she began at 
her husband's study, and came across a pasteboard box labelled Giovanni da 
Empoli. 

Recognizing the name, she opened it and read on the top sheet inside: 
"Reasons for believing G. to be born in 1409." A strange impulse moved her, 
and she went for Lady Anstey's book. It gave identical reasons. 

Then in one moment the loving wife became a student of art. All Saturday 
she sat with the book and the papers before her, and discovered that they coin- 
cided, not here and there but everywhere. The last paper in the box was a letter 
from Lady Anstey saying "Many thanks for loan of notes, which have been most 
acceptable." 

All Sunday she thought over the revelation, all Monday and all Tuesday 
she acted on it. Mr. Henderson returned on the Wednesday. 



145 



He was looking more cheerful than she had seen him for weeks. "The 
world is ruled by irony," he observed, and smiled, as if he found the rule easy to 
bear. 

"And how is the Italian?" she asked, rather ill at ease. 

"As fine as ever. 'A little less imagination in archaeology and a little more in 
art' was his advice to Sir William yesterday." 

The word "art" gave her an opening, and she exclaimed, "Yes indeed! Yes 
indeed! Yes indeed!" 

"Why this enthusiasm?" 

"You dear thing!" she cried, embracing him: "you're too good to be alive!" 

"What have I done?" he asked, looking grave. 

"I've found you out — that you wrote Lady Anstey's book — that she 
took all your facts and ideas and never said a word. And all these months you've 
let her talk and become famous and make money. I do admire and love you for 
it - but do be glad I'm different!" 

"What have you been doing?" he said sternly. 

"Nothing rude- don't be cross. I only let it out in the course of 
conversation, or put it in a letter if I was writing one. " 

"And to whom have you written?" 

"Oh, not to Lady Anstey : to Lady Magnus about thevaccum cleaner, and 
one or two more. And yesterday. I met the editor of the Dudley and he was 
horrified. Don't be angry - no, I don't mind if you are angry; it's simple 
justice I want; she shall not pick your brains and no one know; you shall 
have the credit for your own theory." 

"Unfortunate," said Mr. Henderson. "Professor Rinaldi has just proved to 
me that the theory in question is wrong, that the facts are wrong, that the book is 
wrong, that I am wrong. Unfortunate." 



146 



Pronunciation of Names 

Anstey 

Giovanni 

Angerstein 

Henderson 

Empoli 

Quattrocento 

Pieros 

Pesellino 

Virgil 

Moliere 

Shakespeare 

Botticelli 

William Magnus 

Piero della Francesca 

Pvinaldi 

Poldipezzoli 

Baldovinetti 

Naples 

Milan 

cassoni 



/"aensti/ 

/'d3i:3uva:ni/ 

/'aend39Sti:n/ 

/'hendssn/ 

/'empoli/ 

/'kaetrs'tjentau/ 

/'pisrsuz/ 

/'pezslimsu/ 

/V9:d3il/ 

/'molies/ 

/'Jeikspis/ 

/'bDti'tJeli/ 

/'wiljemmasgnss/ 

/'piarsu dels frseritjesks/ 

/'n'naeldi/ 

/'poldi'pezo:li/ 

/'boddDvmeti/ 

/'neiplz/ 

/'mi'laen/ 

/'ka'ssuni/ 



Idioms- 

at one's disposal 

pick someone's brains 

in barren statements 

to bear one's burden in silence 

to get on at/in something 



- for one's use 

- use someone's ideas 

- state without value, interest or result. 

- to regret or suffer quietly 

- to make progress 
147 



Glossary 




slime 


/ slaim/ 


oozed 


/ u:zd / 


affected 


/s'fektid/ 


abominable 


/ a'bDmmsbl / 


appropriated 


/a'prauprieitid/ 


plagiarism 


/'pleid3nzm / 


anguish 


/'aerjgwij/ 


archives 


/ a:kaivz / 


knack 


/naek/ 


induces 


/ m'dju:siz / 


superficial 


/suipa'fiJV 


Giovanni da Emp 


dU 


Empoli 




Quattrocento 




attribute 


/ a'tribjutid / 



Pieros 



Baldovinetti 




Cassoni 




quaint 


/'kweint/ 


untinged 


/An'tmd3d / 


nasal twang 


/ 'neizltwaerj / 


cautiously 


/' koijasli / 


stimulate 


/'stimjsleit/ 


conventional 


/ ksn'ventjnl / 



- sticky liquid. In this context, hypocrisy 

- flowed out slowly 

- pretentious or artificial 

- causing disgust, detestible 

- takenforone'sownusewithoutpermission 

- act of taking someone else's ideas, words 
and using them as if they were one's own. 

- severe mental or physical pain. 

- place where historical documents, 
records or research writings are kept. 

- skill or ability 

- persuades or influences 

- having no depth of character feeling 
etc., trivial 

- a fictional painter 

- town in central Italy 

- the fifteenth century 

- regard something as belonging to 
somebody. 

- paintings by Italian painter Piero della 
Francesca (1410 or 1420 - 1492) 

- painting by Florentine painter Allessio 
Baldovinetti (1425 - 1499) 

- name of a painting by Francesco 
Pesellino, an Italian Renaissance painter 

- attractively odd or old fashioned, strange 

- unaffected. In this context, 'not untinged' 
means slightly affected 

- nasal quality or tone in speech. 

- carefully to avoid danger 

- arouse the interest of somebody 

- based on customary practice 
148 



civilities 


/ 'si'vibtiz / 


politeness 


mortification 


/'moitifi'keijn/ - 


shame or embarasament 


congenial 


/ 'ksn^imisl/ - 


agreeable or pleasant 


lucrative 


/ 'luikrativ/ 


monetarily profitable 


subtleties 


/ 'SAtlltiz/ 


deep ingenuious, refined or sensitive 
presentations 


controversy 


/'kontrav3:si/ - 


public discussion or argument 


curatorship 


/ kjus' reitajip/ - 


post held by the person in charge of a 
museum, art gallery etc. 


provincial gallery 


/prsu'vintjlgselril - 


a building or room in a province 
(adminstrative division) showing works 
of art 


impulse 


/'imp a Is/ 


urge, inclination, wish 


Virgil 


- 


Classical Roman Poet (70-19 B.C.) 


Moliere 


- 


French dramatist ( 1 622- 1 673) 


Botticelli 


- 


Italian Renaissance painter 
(14457-1510) 


embroiled 


/im'broild/ 


got oneself involved (in a quarell or 
difficult situation) 



A. Match the italicized word in the context of the sentence to the 
appropriate synonym in the given responses: 

1 . Her criticisms were affected. 

a) The Bhopal gas leakage caused severe breathing problems to the residents. 

b) She tried to pass herself off as a foreigner but failed as her accent was so 
pretentious. 

c) The news of the accident disturbed him. 

d) The water in this pond has been defiled by the leather factory near by. 

2. I haven't the knack of putting things brightly. 

a) She needs a suitable bag to keep her cosmetics. 

b) I don't know whether I left the car keys in the room or at the reception 
counter. 

c) The sculptor has the ability of giving a glossy finish to his carving. 

d) My kid sister has a habit of practising her violin lessons just when I need 
to sleep. 149 



3 . I dare say its all superficial and wrong . 

a) Don ' t waste your money on unnecces sary purchases . 

b) It is a false belief that a black cat is a bad omen. 

c) He has done a detailed study on insect behaviour 

d) Her poetry portrays indepth the pangs of poverty. 

4. Empoli is a quaint old town. 

a) My brother bought an old-fashioned clock at an auction sale. 

b) There are books of many unknown authors in this library. 

c) The farmhouse is an isolated building far from the high road. 

d) I am looking for a quiet picnic spot to spend the week-end. 

5. She was soon drawn into a congenial controversy. 

a) The weather in the hills is agreeable to those recovering from illness. 

b) Lung related diseases are in most cases hereditary. 

c) Cornflour is used as a thickening agent in Chinese recipes . 

d) All public transport vehicles are over crowded during peak hours . 

B. Choose the appropriate antonyms of the italicised words from the 
options given. 

1. Her criticisms were affected, her enthusiasms abominable. 
a) contemptible b) desirable 

c) preferable d) attractive 

2 . He had only meant to stimulate Lady Anstey 
a) discourage b) perplex 

c) implicate d) provoke. 

3 who had become so disgusted with controversies... 

a) comparisons b) agreements 

c) expansions d) distortions 

4. He regarded Lady Anstey with frozen admiration. 
a) denial b) abuse 

c) contempt d) dislike 

5 . I met the editor of the Dudley and he was horrified. 
a) startled b) appreciative 

c) calm d) delighted 

150 



C. Fill each blank with a suitable word from the block given below. 

1 . The old man was in when he lost his grandchild at the fair. 

2. The salesman the sales data of his rival company and misused the 

information to better his sales. 

3. The manager his company's success to the hard work of his 

employees. 

4. Even though he has been living in the U.S for so long, he has retained his 
Indian culture by western influences. 

5 . You need to be about the friends you make during your adolescent 

days. 



attributed; untinged; cautious; anguish; appropriated 



Comprehension 

A. Answer briefly : 

1 . How did Mr. Henderson feel when Lady Anstey ' s book appeared? 

2 . Why did he feel so ? 

3 . How did Mrs . Henderson react to Lady Anstey ' s book? 

4. What was her opinion about the book and its author? 

5 . Why had Mr. Henderson taken his wife to Empoli? 

6 . What did the publisher want Lady Anstey to do after the success of her book? 

7. Why did Mr. Henderson decide to "bear his burden in silence" after the 
plagiarism of his work? 

8 . What was the effect of Lady Anstey 's book in artistic circles? 

9 . Who was Professor Rinaldi? 

10. Why did Mr. Henderson meet him? 

1 1 . What did Mrs. Henderson come across during her cleaning? 

12. What did she do as the result of her discovery? 

1 3 . What was Mr. Henderson's response to her actions? 

14. What does Mrs. Henderson's behaviour at the breakfast table reveal 
about her? 

15. How is the title suitable to the story? 

151 



B. Write a paragraph on : 

1 . Lady Anstey ' s book on Giovanni da Empoli 

2 . Mr. Henderson' s theory and its outcome. 

3 . Mrs. Henderson's discovery and its outcome 

C. Write an essay in 250 words. 

1 . Mr. Henderson and his theory 

2. E.M. Forster's characterisation of Mr. Henderson, his wife and Lady Anstey 

3. "Neither a borrower not a lender be"— comment with reference to 
'The Helping Hand' 

D. Identify the character and his/her traits or personality as revealed 
through these lines. 

1 . He held up the newspaper as a screen. 

2. I haven't the knack of putting things brightly. 

3. He had told her, cautiously at first then, as he grew warm, 

infusing the facts with life. 

4. Wisely refraining from venturing into new fields, she contented herself with 
repeating the statements she had made. 

5 . I only let it out in the course of a conversation or put it in a letter. 

6. Don't be angry- no, I don't mind if you are angry! it's simple justice I want. 

7 . Unfortunate. . . . Professor Rinaldi has just proved to me that the theory in 
question is wrong. 

Understanding Conceptual Meaning : 

In order to understand the concept outlined in a text, it is neces- 
sary to understand the 'purpose', 'means' and 'comparisons' if any. 

Read the passage "No more she had. The book was the work of 
Mr. Henderson 

Greeks who had taken everything and said nothing to anybody, 
and splendid fellows they were" from the lesson 

What is the 'purpose' of this text? 

Henderson explains why he had given lady Anstey his notes and justifies 
her plagiarism. 

What is the 'means' of this explanation and justification? 

A situational and illustrative mode is employed to explain and justify the 
actions. 

152 



What is the "comparison" between Lady Anstey and the classical 
writers mentioned in the passage? 

The phrases " on her side" and " who had taken everything and said 
nothing to anybody" show that the classical writers had done acts of 
plagiarism just like lady Anstey had done. 

The phrase "splendid fellows they were" shows that Henderson seeks 
to overlook the crime of plagiarism by justifying its association with those 
considered respectable. 

Task : Read the passage, "Mr Henderson did not write ....Piero della 
Francesca" from the lesson. Using the model given above, explain 
the 'purpose', 'means' and 'comparison'. 

Understanding discourse Organisation 

The following is a diagrammatic representation of the main 
characters in the story "The Helping Hand" and their roles in the organisation 
of the text. 




Lady Anstey and 
her book 




Mrs. Henderson and her 
reactions 



Mr. Henderson and his 
theory 



f Impresses *\ 
^artistic circlesj 



Seeks justices td| 
give due credit) 



c 



theory provedN 
wrong J 



Task 1 : Pick out the phrases in the bubbles and arrange them in sequence 
of presentation in the text. 

Task 2 : Read the lesson in Unit I and give a diagrammatic representation of 
the discourse organisation. Remember to look out for the main and 
supporting ideas. 

I Do 



D. Vocabulary 

I. Using the dictionary independently: 

(a) Refer to the dictionary to find the meanings and parts of speech of the 
following words: 





Part of speech 


Meaning 


exciting 






fantasy 






fairy 






recurring 







(b) Refer to a Thesaurus to find 
the Synonyms of the following 
words: 



(c) Refer to a Thesaurus to find 
the Antonyms of the following 
words: 





Synonym 


chased 




certain 




handsome 




scornful 







Antonym 


appear 




close 




doubtfully 




impatiently 





(d) Refer to the dictionary to find the derivatives of the following words: 

e. g. magic - magical, magician, magically 

hope 

interrupt 

//. You have read the following words in the lesson. They are words 
formed with prefies and suffixes 



A 




premature 


embroiled 


acknowledge 


unfortunate 


mistrust 


discovered 


attribute 


induces 


anew 


impression 



B 



forgiv eness 

sympathetic 

abomin able 

humourous 

plagiarism 



admiration 

cautiously 

curato rship 

provincial 

different 



154 



The words given in column A are formed using prefixes and the 
ones in column B using suffixes. The bold part in each word is 
the prefix/suffix. 

Here are some more examples: 





Prefixes 


a- 


atheist, aglow 


mis- 


misuse, misspell 


im- 


immortal, immobile 


hyper- 


hypersensitive 


en- 


enable, entrust 


uiii- 


uniform, unilateral 


a- 


illogical 


sur- 


surface 


un- 


unwind, unaware 


de- 


decode, defame 


mal- 


malnutrition 


co- 


cooperate, coexist 


dis- 


dislike 


ex- 


ex-minister 


re- 


reorganise 


over- 


overlook 


semi- 


semicircle 


poly- 


polysyllabic 


tele- 


telephone 


under- 


underestimate 


inter- 


international 


pro- 


proclaim 


anti- 


antinational 


sub- 


submarine 


out- 


outcast 


micro- 


microbiology 





Suffixes 


-ful 


scornful, doubtful 


-ster 


youngster 


-iy 


hopefully, sadly 


-hood 


adulthood 


-ism 


fanaticism, 


-ish 


childish, reddish 


-ious 


religious, furious 


-y 


rocky, muddy 


-ness 


happiness 


-ment 


appointment 


-less 


cordless, hopeless 


-cracy 


democracy 


-ship 


friendship 


-graph 


autograph 


-like 


childlike 


-ist 


artist 


-ward 


downward 


-able 


honourable 


-ous 


dangerous 


-logy 


biology 


-al 


comical 


-ate 


fortunate 


-eer 


engineer 



Task 1: Read the following passage. Fill in the blanks with suitable 
prefixes and suffixes. 



155 



Tim's boy. days 



Tim was a play little boy. His behaviour was clown His room was 

tidy. He had books and toys all round. His grandfather's photo hung 

on the wall. The hands on his clock moved in the clockwise direction. He 

watched serials and gang movies. He was very rebell He 

behaved and obeyed his elders. His father had tension. The doctor 

said it was cur. He studied in a ....education school. In school he was known 

by his name. He wrote poetry under the nym, 'Notty'. He was 

enthusiastic at times. He was desper. to win every poetry competition. 

He liked classic music. He wanted to study archaeo His dream was to 

become a mountain His uncle gave him a scope on his sixteenth birthday. 

After he grew up, Tim called that it was this gift that changed his life. He 

had become a scient specialising in cell structure. 

Task 2:Form new words Task 3:Form new words 

combining the following combining the following 

prefixes and the words suffixes and the words 

given in the box. given in the box. 



im- 


legal 




joy 


-ly 


en- 


do 




in 


-ness 


uni- 


take 




child 


-ment 


il- 


disciplinary 




hard 


-ism 


de- 


theism 




penny 


-y 


mal- 


mature 




magnet 


-less 


ex- 


close 




happy 


-cracy 


semi- 


directional 




busy 


-ship 


poly- 


cipher 




entertain 


-like 


under- 


way 




luck 


-ward 


inter- 


wife 




auto 


-able 


pro- 


nourished 




obtain 


-ous 


sub- 


long 














out- 


colon 









///. Lady Anstey's book on Giovanni da Empoli was a little apple - green book 

The italicised word is a compound word. It is formed by combining one 
base form and another. 

156 



Examples 


Combination 


Other examples 


dream-world 


Noun + Noun 


postman 


bed-time 


motorcycle 


rabbit-hole 


honeybee 


chessmen 




cork-screw 




sun-dial 




wonderland 




knee-deep 


Noun + Adjective (participle) 


homesick, 






henpecked 


craftsman 


Noun in Possessive case + Noun 


sportsman 






childsplay 


insight 


Adverb + Noun 


out-patient 






postscript 


looking-glass 


Verbal noun in '-ing' + Noun 


washing machine 


curious-looking 


Adjective + '-ing' participle 


good-looking 


shabby-looking 




easy-going 


dreamy-eyed 


Adjective + '-ed' participle 


long-awaited 


daydream 


Adverbial + deverbal Noun 


boat-ride 



Examples of other combinations: 



Examples 


Combination 


push-button, treadmill 


Verb + Object 


safeguard, whitewash 


Adjective + Verb 


overthrow, upset 


Adverb + Verb 


telephone operator, science teacher 


Object + Agential 
Noun with 'erV 'or' 


air-conditioning, sightseeing 


Object + verbal Noun with '-ing' 


blackboard, blue print 


Adjective + Noun 


lifelong, jet black 


Noun + Adjective 


pop corn, cry baby 


Verb + Noun 



157 



Task 1: Combine the words given in Box A with those in Box B to 
form compound words and fill in the blanks appropriately. 



day, after, flash, dining, 
sun, sweet, bed, earth, rain, hair, 
paper, police, hand, mad, fire, 
sea, look, crime, blood 



B 

back, green, light, smelling, man, 
reporter, side, break, proof, fall, 
quake, cut, stains, shake, out, 
dream, officer, room, rays, noon 



My dream was to become a That I was reading 

the edition of the 'Adventures of Sherlock Homes'. 



Suddenly I felt a tremor. I thought it was an It was dark. I 

searched for the by my It was gone. I slowly got up 

from the bed. I heard the sound of on the roof. I saw 

on the floor. It led to the I found a candle lit and a man with a 

strange seated at the table. He had eyes. He wore a 

jacket. He greeted me with a He gave me a 

rose. I heard a knock. I went to the door and opened it. A 

said he was on the for a He had escaped 

from the mental asylum. Suddenly there was a bright fire from the dining room. 



I saw the streaming in through the windows. It was 

I realised it was all a 



Task 2: Fill in the blanks choosing the words given in brackets to form 
compound words: 

(god, grand, tooth, beauty, gold, fancy, born, sleep, telling) 

1. The art of story is slowly dying. 

2. Tom Sawyer told Aunty Polly that he had a ache. 

3 . Little Red Riding Hood went to visit her mother. 

4. The early explorers of America dreamt of finding mines . 

5. I dressed up as a fairy mother for the dress competition. 

6. Sleeping was woken up by the kiss of a handsome prince. 

7 walking is a condition, not a disease. 

8. Joseph and Mary were warned in a dream to avoid King Herod who 
had planned to kill new babies . 



158 



IV. (a) Read the following sentences: 

1 . I We will have brunch at eleven o' clock so that we can use the hour for 
lunch break to finish the project. 

2 . The planes could not take off at the scheduled time on Saturday because of 
heavy smog in the city. 

Here 'brunch' is formed by combining 'breakfast' and 'lunch'. 

Similarly 'smog' is formed by combining 'smoke' and 'fog' . They are formed 
by a process of blending or combining two words. 

Task: Combine the words given below and form new words by 
blending. 

motorway + hotel = motor + bike = 

television + broadcast = travel + catalogue = 

international + police = teleprinter + exchange = 

electro + execute = binary + digit = 

motor + pedal cycle = news + broadcast = 

(Clue: One portion of the word to be formed is highlighted.) 

(b) Look at the following sentences : 

Alisha's grandpa was searching for his specs. 

He found it near the phone. 

Be it the day before my exam, or even when I was down with flu, .... 

Look at the words in bold. How are they formed? 

They are formed by the process of 'clipping', that is, a portion of the 
original word is removed and the remaining part is considered to be a word by 
itself. 

specs is from spectacles (back clipping) 
phone is from telephone (front clipping) 
exam is from examination (back clipping) 
flu is from influenza (front and back clipping) 

159 



Task 1: The following words have been formed by 'clipping'. Find the 
original words. 

ad - plane - 

demo - mike - 

lab - fridge - 



Task 2: 



The words formed by clipping are given in Box A and the portion 
clipped is given in Box B. Match them to find the original word. 



A 




B 


auto 




graph 


gent's 




omni 


memo 




mobile 



(C) Look at the following sentences: 

1 . Our suitcases were X-rayed to see if we were carrying arms or weapons. 
The noun "x-ray" is the original word. From it the verb "x-rayed" has been 
formed. The process involved here is back-formation. 

Here are some more sentences: 

My cousin used to baby-sit us when our parents went out. 
Grandpa had been diagnosed with lung cancer. 
baby-sit is a back-formation of baby-sitter 
diagnose is from diagnosis 

Task 1: Look at the words in bold in the following sentences. Fill in 
the blanks given below with the appropriate back-formation 
of these words. 

Mr. Angerstein was the editor of the Pocket Painters series. 

He was a great orator too. 

My voice filled with emotion. 

The burglar entered stealthily. 

They watched a television programme. 



160 



1. He was asked to at the elocution competition. 

2. 'The Helping Hand' was yesterday on Channel V. 

3. The actor was asked to 

4. The thief the house. 

5. She the newspaper. 

Task 2: In the sentences given below, the words formed by back- 
formation are given. Find their original noun forms. 

1 . They lazed around idly. 

2. 1 wanted to dry-clean my clothes. 

3. Do not chain smoke. It is bad for health. 

E. Study skills 

We spend about 8 hours/day, 56 hours/week, 224 hours/month and 2,688 
hours/year doing it., .that's right.. .SLEEPING. We apparently spend one third of 
our lives doing nothing. But is sleep really doing nothing? It looks like it.. .our 
eyes are closed, our muscles are relaxed, our breathing is regular, and we do not 
respond to sound or light. If you take a look at what is happening inside your 
brain, however, you will find quite a different situation - the brain is very active. 
You are doing something ! you are dreaming ! 

Look at the graph given below: 



Awake 


REM 


sws 


EEG J^VU^\fi)^J^ 


^t^*wvL 


a^\/VVAA^ 


emg -^y^ 


_^_ 


— ^ 


eog J\rV 


Vr~ 


— — 



Sleep follows a regular cycle each night. There are two basic forms of 
sleep: slow wave sleep (SWS) and rapid eye movement (REM) sleep. EEG 
(electroencephalogram) shows a record of brain activity; the EMG 
(electromyogram) shows muscle activity; the EOG (electroculogram) shows 



161 



eye movements. Look at the differences in the EEG, EMG and EOG during 
waking, REM sleep (Rapid Eye Movement Sleep) and SWS sleep. Most 
dreaming occurs during REM sleep. During REM sleep, a person's eyes move 
back and forth rapidly. The EEG pattern during REM sleep is similar to the EEG 
pattern when people are awake. However, the muscle activity is very quiet during 
REM sleep. Muscles are inactive to prevent us from acting out our dreams. 

Task: Using the above example, describe the graphs given below. 




Infants Children 
Age 



Adults 



-* +- 



Infants Children 
Age 
F. Grammar 

Look at the following sentences : 

This was followed by the hunt for his most treasured copy 



+ +■ 



Adults 



I don't know what you mean. 

I had taken a trip down memory lane. 

The words in bold are primary auxiliaries. 'Be', 'do' and 'have' are 

called auxiliaries because they help the main verb, (auxiliary - helping) 

'Be', 'do' and 'have' act as both main verbs and auxiliaries. 

e.g. (a) I am a good boy. (b) I am going to school, 
(a) I did my homework, (b) I didn't go to school, 
(a) I have a tie. (b) I have done my homework. 

In the above sentences, (a) denotes the use of 'be', 'do' and 'have' 
as a main verb and (b) denotes that of an auxiliary as it helps another 
main verb- 'going', 'go', 'done'. 

162 



Here are some more examples of primary auxiliaries and their uses: 

'be': 

Mrs. Henderson was turning over the leaves, (used to form continuous 
tenses) 

'be' + 'to' infinitive 

"Mr. Henderson was going to pay Professor Rinaldi a visit", (planned 
activity) 

You are to recite the poem, (command) 

'do': 

Do you dream of a fantasy world? (interrogative) 

"Don't read at meals" dear, said his mother.(negative) 

When he did speak again, it was in a deep growl, (emphasis) 

Do say the poem. We want to hear it. (request or persuasive invitation) 

Do you know the poem? Yes, I do. (to avoid repetition of a previous 
ordinary verb) 

You know the poem, don't you? (in question tags) 

'have': 

The dear lady had appropriated it without acknowledgement (to form the 
perfect tense) 

You have to recite the poem, (with the infinitive to indicate obligation) 

I had to recite the poem, (to express obligation in the past) 

You don't have to recite the poem, ('have to/had to' used with 'do' in 
negatives) 

Do you have to recite the poem? ('have to/had to' used with 'do' in 
questions) 

(You can use 'have to' or 'had to' instead of 'must' .) 

The following table gives the various forms of the primary 
auxiliaries: 



Primary Auxiliary 


Finite 


Non-finite 


be 


is, are, am, was, were 


be, being, been 


have 


has, have, had 


have, having 


do 


do, does, did 


to do, doing, done 



163 



Look at the following sentences: 

What would you buy? 

It might have been written a hundred times , 

Adjectives you can do anything with, 

The words in bold, 'would', 'might' and 'can' are modal auxiliaries. 

They are used before ordinary verbs and express meanings such as possibility, 
certainty, etc. 

Let us see how each of these is used with examples: 

'Can' and 'could' 

Used to express ability: 

I can manage the whole lot of them. 

You can make words mean so many different things. 

We cannot do it, Sir, because 

" and he couldn't trust them to keep silent" 

Used to express permission: 
You can go. 
Can I leave? 

Used to express likelihood or possibility in interrogative and negative 
sentences: 

Could it be lady Anstey 's original work? 
It can't be her work. 
'Will' and 'would': 

Used to express volition/willingness: 

I will try and tell you.... 
They would like to negotiate. 

Used to talk about a characteristic habit: 

She will sit with a book for hours. 

'Will you' indicates an invitation or a request: 

164 



Will you recite a poem? 
'Shall' and 'should': 

Used to express the future: 
Ishallread 

Used to express 'duty' or 'obligation': 

You should put the children to bed. 

Used to express probability: 

It should be The Postman. I'm expecting a letter 

Used to ask after the will of the person addressed: 
Shall I close the window? 

'May' and 'might': 

Used to express possibility in affirmative sentences: 

You may want to come back. 
You might be any shape. 
It might rain tomorrow. 

Used to express permission: 
May I go? 
You may go. 

Used to express a wish: 
May God bless you! 

'Must': 

Used to express necessity or obligation: 

'Must a name mean something?' Of course it must. 
I must report at once. 

Used to express logical certainty: 

She had asked many question and had borrowed his notes. 
She must have decided to appropriate his theories. 

165 



'Ought to': 

Used to express moral obligation: 

Mrs. Henderson felt that her husband ought to have the credit. 
She ought to be going. 

'Used to': 

Used to express a discontinued habit: 

We used to climb this tree when we were in the primary classes. 

'Need': 

Denotes necessity or obligation: 

You needn't go on making remarks like that. 

She need only to ask. 

Used in negatives and questions: 

I don't need to go now. 
Do you need to talk to him? 

'Dare': 

Used generally in negative and interrogative sentences: 

How dare you talk back to me? 

She did not dare to speak to him. 

Alice had also taught me to dare to dream. 

Note: Themodals 'used to', 'need' and 'dare to' are quasi or semi-modals. 

Taskl: Fill in the blanks with suitable forms of 'do': 

A you want to go shopping this afternoon? 

B: I , but I can't because I'm going for a walk with Dolly. 

A: But n't you take a walk with Dolly yesterday? 

B: I 

A V ve never met Dolly you think she might like to go shopping? 

B: I n't think so. She n't do much shopping. 

A That's strange. Why not? 

B: Dolly's my dog! Dogs n't go shopping very often, they? 

166 



Task 2: Fill in the blanks with suitable auxiliaries choosing from the 
ones given in brackets: 

(could, can, may, don't, will) 

A lion nearly trod on a little mouse. "I crush you with my paw," 

said the lion. " do that, please," said the poor mouse. The kind lion said, 

"I not crush you." "Thank you," said the mouse. "Some day I do 

you a good turn." "You!" said the lion. "How a poor little mouse help a 

big lion?" "I know," said the mouse, "but I help you if I " 

Task 3: Fill in the blanks with suitable auxiliaries choosing from the 
ones given in brackets: 

1 . The medicine be kept in the refrigerator. 

2 . Every afternoon they watch television serials . 

3 . The fire-fighters brave the raging fire. 

4. You not buy me anew dress. I already have one. 

5. You seethebossimmediately.lt is very urgent. 

6. He lift heavy weights. 

7. My father said, "You go and play". 

8. You obey your elders. 

9 . He looks familiar. I have seen him somewhere. 

10 1 take leave of you? 

1 1 . His father was very doubtful about the possibility of his passing the 
exam. So, he said, "He pass." 

12. "They rather die than surrender." 

13. When my grandfather was young, he go for long walks. 

14. You doit, if you tried hard. 

15. Don't disturb her. She reading. 

16. India won the match. 

(dare to, need, can, might, used to, ought to, must, could, should, 'be' 
verb, may, will, would, 'have' verb) 

167 



G. Writing 

I. Read the following pas sage: 

A cute little female about six inches high, with wings and a pretty dress is 
the usual description people give if you ask them what a fairy looks like. This 
image of the fairy as a tiny, lovable, angel-like creature dressed in white , goes 
back to about the seventeenth century . But before that time, fairies were very 
different. They were cruel and dangerous creatures which lived in the remote hills 
and forests of Britain. 

They were feared so much that people rarely spoke out loud of 'fairies' , 
preferring to use more respectful names such as ' the little people ' or ' the hidden 
people' . There were many different names for the hidden people: fairies, elves, 
pixies, goblins , to name a few. There were also a number of explanations of their 
origin . Some said they were spirits of wood and water . Some thought they were 
restless ghosts of unbaptised babies . Still others believed them to be a separate 
creation, as real as humans and animals. 

They were much smaller than ordinary people . Most accounts describe 
them as being the size of children , about four feet or so. Their clothing seems 
almost always to have been green or brown , although they occasionally went 
naked . Many early stories indicate that they were nocturnal. They had their homes 
in lonely and out of the way places . 

Generally the fairies hated humans and could be very cruel to them. They 
would steal human babies, especially those with fair hair and blue eyes, and 
replace them with one of their own or just a piece of wood. 

Babies were not the only things that the fairies would steal. Tools, plates, 
saucepans , practically anything small that they could easily carry. Food and clothing 
were not spared. Fruit trees were raided in the night and cows milked dry- 
Sometimes relationship with humans was more friendly. They would do 
household jobs and mend things around the farm in exchange for old clothes and 
food . 

The first thing we notice about these people is that their needs were not at 
all supernatural. They wanted food and were ready to work or steal in order to 
get it. Surely these were not ghosts or spirits . 

Who are they then? We will never know the truth about the fairies. 

168 



Origin 

Spirits of wood 
and water; 
restless ghosts of 
unbaptised babies; 
separate creation 
like humans and 
animals 

Before 17 th century 
feared, cruel ^_ 
and dangerous 



Size 

smaller than 
ordinary people; 
size of children; 
about four feet 



Clothing 



Home 



green or brown; lonely out of 
occasionally the way places 
naked 



Nature 

Nocturnal 




Fairies - different names 
Goblins, elves, pixies, little 
people, hidden people 



Generally hated 

humans; cruel to them 

stole their babies; 

stole tools, plates, 

saucepans, food, 

clothing; at night 

raided trees and milked cows 




1 



/ 



elationship with humans 



After that - cute, with wings, 
pretty dress, tiny, lovable, angel- 
like, dressed in white 

Sometimes - friendly; 
did household jobs and mended 
things on the farm in exchange 
for old clothes and food 



Needs-not supernatural; 
wanted food - ready to 
work or steal to get it 



Surely not ghosts or spirits. Who are they? 
Will never know the truth about them 



'The little people' 

Before the 17 th century, fairies also known as elves, goblins, pixies, 'the 
little people' or 'the hidden people', were feared and thought to be cruel and 
dangerous. But after that they were thought of as tiny, cute, lovable, angel-like 
creatures, with wings and a pretty white dress. 

Some thought they were spirits of wood and water, others that they were 
restless ghosts of unbaptised babies, yet others thought they were a separate 
creation like humans and animals. 

They were smaller than ordinary people - the size of children, about four 
feet. Their dress was green or brown. Occasionally they were naked. They lived 
in lonely places and were nocturnal by nature. 

They generally hated humans and stole their babies, tools, plates, saucepans, 
food and clothing. At night they raided the fruit trees and milked the cows. 

169 



Sometimes they were friendly. They did household jobs and mended things 
on the farm in return for food and old clothes. 

They were not supernatural. They were not ghosts or spirits. Who were 
they then? We will never know the truth about them. 

The above is an example of summarising. 

Why do we summarise? 

In order to reduce a larger text to its bare essentials - the gist or key ideas . 
In order to save time and trouble in reading the entire original text again. 
How do we summarise? 

1 . Skim the text to be summarised 

2 . Read the text carefully 

3 . Note down/underline the main ideas 

4 . Draw a diagram or an outline of the main ideas 

5 . Note down the supporting ideas 

6 . Leave out examples and details 

7. Don't include your own ideas 

8 . Use your own words 

9 . Develop the outline/diagram into a summary and give a title 

10. Edit the summary for spelling, grammatical errors, etc. 

Task: Read the lesson 'The Helping Hand' and summarise it based on 
the model given above. 

II. Your English Literary Club is bringing out a magazine. 
Write an article on "How to discourage plagiarism". 

Before writing - 

Think about the topic at length. 

Discuss with others. 

Refer to a few books, magazines, newspaper clippings, the Internet, etc. 

Jot down your ideas as and when they occur. 



170 



While writing - 

The length of the article should not exceed 500 words. 
Divide your article into introduction, body and conclusion. 
Begin with a catchy introduction. 
Use anecdotes, quotes, etc. 
Use simple, concise language. 
Watch your spelling and grammar. 

H. Occupational Competency 

Task: You see an advertisement in the newspaper. A publishing house 
in New Delhi has brought out a paperback edition of the 
complete works of Lewis Carroll. You want to buy it. You are 
asked to send a Demand Draft for Rs.500/- Fill in the following 
DD challan in favour of ' X publishing house, New Delhi', 
payable at New Delhi. The surcharge for Rs.500/- is Rs.10/- 



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171 



/. Strategic Competency 

Every other day new words are being coined. But not all words that are 
coined find their way to the dictionary Some fall by the way- side, some thrive at 
the birth-place alone, some manage to thrive without lexical acceptance, but only 
a few survive and manage to make their grand entry into the internationally 
accepted lexis. 

Word coinage can be fun. Neither does it need to follow any strict linguistic 
rules nor does it need to be accepted into the dictionary. All that is required is 
acceptance by a group of people. Even if the members in the group are few it 
doesn't matter. 

An example of a word that has been thus coined is 'co-brother' . This 
word is used to refer to the person who has married one's wife's sister. Though 
this word has not yet found its way into the dictionary, it has been in use for quite 
a long time, especially in South India. Another example is, 'burning a CD' . It 
means to copy a CD. 

Task 1: Make a list of words that you have been using or heard other 
people using. (The words must have been coined and used for 
specific purposes.) 

Task 2: Coin a few words using the prefix 'co-\ and suggest how they 
could be used. (e.g. 'co-study' could mean combined or group 
study.) 

All said and done, always try to use Standard English. But be aware 
of the above eccentricities of the English language. 

/. Creative Competency 

I. Read the following letter to the editor of a newspaper: 

Sir, - 1 visited the theme park, 'Kids Dreamland' on East Coast Road, last 
month. In spite of the variety entertainment, it is a pity that there are puddles of 
stagnant sewage water in a comer of the campus. This attracts flies and mosquitoes. 
With the eatery nearby it proves a serious health hazard. My friend, who visited 
the theme park last week, also noticed this problem. Besides, the water used for 
the games doesn't seem to be clean. We ended up with itching and rashes 
immediately after our visit. My friend too has experienced this. If these problems 
are not set right, the 'Dreamland' will soon become a 'Diseaseland' . 

S. Vijayakani 
1 72 Chennai 



Remember, a letter to the editor has to be precise and to the point. 
The language should be simple and free from grammatical/spelling errors. 

Task: A local library in your neighbourhood is in a dilapidated 
condition. Though it boasts of very rare books, the books are 
not well maintained. The walls are cracked and water seeps in 
through the ceiling when it rains. Though the library is open 
till 8.00 p.m., the lighting is very poor. During the night it 
serves as a den for a few gamblers. Write a letter to the editor 
of a newspaper voicing your grievance. Use the above letter as 
a model. 

II. Your class is in charge of putting up a play for Annual Day. You 
decide to enact 'The Helping Hand. ' 

Task: Complete the following script for the play based on the lesson. 

The Helping Hand 

Characters :- Stage props :- 

Mrs . Henderson dining table 

Son chairs side table 

Mr. Henderson Room Scene 

Duration 45 minutes 

(Mr. Henderson is at the table eating his breakfast. His son is beside him 
reading a book while he eats. Mrs. Henderson is serving them.) 



Mrs. Henderson: 

Mr Henderson: 
Mrs Henderson: 



Mr Henderson: 
Mrs Henderson: 



Oh ! This is indeed surprising, I didn' t know Mrs . Anstey 
could write so well ! . Its a fount of information! 

(glumly) Hm good yes 

And just imagine! she knows German! But when did 
she go to Italy dear? I don't remember her going. Surely 
I would remember? Ah she mentioned Empoli in her 
book. Isn't that where we went darling? 

(still glum) yes dear. 



Remember when writing a script use short, crisp sentences. Leave 
out unnecessary details. You can include any descriptions or extra 
information, which might be important in parentheses/italics. 

173 



Self-evaluation: 

I. 1. What is the difference between a principal verb and an auxiliary? Give 

an example. 

2. How do modal auxiliaries differ from primary auxiliaries? 

3 . Give one or more examples of primary auxiliaries being used as principal 
verbs. 

4. Which modal auxiliaries are used for probability and possibility? 

5. What are quasi-modals? 

II. 1 . Give examples of clipping, blending and back-formation. 
2. Give examples of compound words: 

Noun + Noun: 

Adjective + Noun : 

Verb + Noun : 

Noun + Adjective : 

Adverb + Noun: 



174 



POEM 

IS LIFE, BUT A DREAM? 

A Boat, beneath a sunny sky 
Lingering onward dreamily 
In an evening of July - 

Children three that nestle near, 
Eager eye and willing ear, 
Pleased a simple tale to hear - 

Long has paled that sunny sky: 
Echoes fade and memories die: 
Autumn frosts have slain July. 

Still she haunts me, phantomwise. 
Alice moving under skies 
Never seen by waking eyes. 

Children yet, the tale to hear, 
Eager eye and willing ear, 
Lovingly shall nestle near. 

In a Wonderland they lie, 
Dreaming as the days go by, 
Dreaming as the summers die: 

Ever drifting down the stream - 
Lingering in the golden gleam - 
Life, what is it but a dream? 

Is all our Life, then, but a dream 
Seen faintly in the golden gleam 
Athwart Time's dark resistless stream? 

Bowed to the earth with bitter woe, 
Or laughing at some raree-show, 
We flutter idly to and fro. 

Man's little Day in haste we spend, 
And, from its merry noontide, send 
No glance to meet the silent end. 

- Lewis Carroll 

175 



(This poem talks about the boat-ride of Dodgson and the Liddells. 
The poet recollects after a number of years how they set out to picnic on the 
bank and how the tale was spun.) 



Glossary and notes: 

lingering onward dreamily 

nestle near 

long has paled that sunny sky 



echoes fade and memories die 



Autumn frosts have slain July 



she haunts me phantomwise 



athwart Time's dark resistless stream 



bowed to the earth with bitter woe 



raree-show 



flutter idly to and fro 



going forward slowly, in a 

dreamy state, reluctant to leave 

settle down comfortably 

long after the sun has lost its 

glow; late in the evening (this 

could also mean that many years 

have gone by since the story was 

told to the little girls) 

this denotes the passage of time, 

how it has become very silent 

and memories have been 

forgotten 

though it is July when the 

weather is generally pleasant, 

Autumn has set in early bringing 

with it the cold and frosts 

being disturbingly present in the 

mind like a ghost (though the 

fairy tale was spun years ago, the 

character of Alice still haunts the 

author) 

across 'Time' which is compared 

to a powerful stream (Life, here, 

is compared to a boat-ride 

across 'Time') 

bent with troubles or worries; 

burdened by great sorrow or 

distress 

a form of street entertainment, 

especially one carried in a box, 

such as a peep show 

to go about lazily, without any 

aim or purpose 



176 



Comprehension questions 

1 . Are the children eager to listen to the fairy tale? If yes, which line tells 
us that? 

2. What kind of world do the children find themselves in, when they 
listen to the story? 

3 . What are the variou s seasons mentioned in the poem? 

4. As the children listen to the story, are they aware of the passage of 
time? 

5 . What does the poet compare life to? 

6 . What are the different parts of the day mentioned in the poem? 

7 . What does it mean to 'drift down the stream' ? 

8 . Which lines in the poem tell you that life offers both sad and happy 
moments? 

Appreciation questions 

1 . Why is the boat lingering onward dreamily, reluctant to leave? 

2 . 'Echoes fade and memories die' - Can memories really die? 

3 . Why does the poet use the word 'slain' to refer to the Autumn frosts 
in July? 

4. What does 'Wonderland' refer to? 

5 . What is meant by ' golden gleam' ? 

6 . The poet compares life to a dream and time to a stream. Why do you 
think, he makes these comparisons? 

7. 'Man's little Day' - does this refer to one day in man's life or an 
entire lifetime? 

8. What does the poet mean by 'silent end' ? 

9 . 'Life, what is it but a dream?' - This is a rhetoric question. Why does 
the poet use such a question here? 

10. Why is the 'B' in 'Boat' capitalised? Is it because the poet wants to 
compare life to a boat-ride? 

Explain the following passages with reference to the context: 

1 . Eager eye and willing ear, 
Pleased a simple tale to hear - 

2 . Long has paled that sunny sky : 
Echoes fade and memories die: 

177 



3 . Still she haunts me, phantomwise. 

4. Is all our Life, then, but a dream 
Seen faintly in the golden gleam 
Athwart Time's dark resistless stream? 

5 . Man' s little Day in haste we spend, .... 
No glance to meet the silent end. 

Activity 

1 . The full name of the original Alice - Alice Pleasance Liddell, is hidden 
in the poem. Can you find it? 

2 . There is one word in the poem which does not rhyme with the other 
two rhyming words in the stanza. It is more of an eye-rhyme. Can 
you find it? 

3 . List out the characteristics of life and that of dream. Compare both. 
Similarly list out the characteristics of time and that of a stream. 
Compare both. Is the poet justified in making these comparisons? 

4. When you listened to a tale, read a story or watched a film, have you 
ever had a character in that tale/story/film haunt you afterwards? What 
were your feelings then? 

5 . Have you ever had an interesting dream? Attempt writing a poem on 
your dream. 

6. Can life be compared to a paper-boat? Jot down your ideas on this. 

Parallel Reading 

In both, 'Alice's Adventures in Wonderland' and 'Through the Looking 
Glass ' , the most important and powerful character is not a person but the English 
language. In fact, Alice discovers that words have a life and will of their own. 

Read the following poem: 

WORDS 

Some words are happy and some words are sad. 
Some words are scented and others smell bad. 
Some words are open and some words are sly. 
Some words are slimy and others are dry. 
Some words are cold and some words are hot. 
Some words are tender and others are not. 
Some words are honest but other words cheat. 
Some words are bitter and others are sweet. 

178 



Some words move quickly, some words are slow. 
Some words are shrinking, while some others grow. 
Some words are remembered, some words forgot. 
Some words we use little and some quite a lot. 

- Carl Sandburg 

'Echoes fade and memories die' and 'Some words are remembered, some 
words forgot' - compare both the lines. 



179 



UNITV 

COMPETENCIES 

A LISTENING: Listening to panel discussion 
Listening to programmes on TV 

B SPEAKING: Conversing at the cinema 

C READING: Reading and understanding a questionnaire 
Linking ideas scattered in a text 
Appreciating literature 

D VOCABULARY: Using foreign words/phrases used in English Using 
words/phrases appropriately in relevant spoken/written contexts 

E STUDY SKILLS: Note making 

F GRAMMAR: Differentiating Defining and Non-defining Relative 
Clauses Differentiating Simple, Compound and Complex sentences 

G WRITING: Presenting data in tabular form 

H OCCUPATIONAL COMPETENCY: Preparing a curriculum vitae 
and a covering letter 

I STRATEGIC COMPETENCY: Guessing meaning of unfamiliar 
words from the context 

J CREATIVE COMPETENCY: Writing a slogan for advertising a 
brand/a movement, etc. 
Interviewing a famous personality for TV 

180 



A. Listening 

Task 1: The teacher will read aloud a panel discussion, broadcast on 
All Bharat India. Listen to the panel discussion and take notes, 
using the format given below. 

(The teacher reads) 

Date and time of the programme 

Topic of discussion 

Name of the panelists 

Their views, with supporting details 





Name 


Views 


1 






2 






3 






4 







Your impression about their presentation 

Your views on the topic 

The foreign words/phrases used 

Task 2: The teacher will read aloud TV news headlines. Listen carefully 
and answer the questions below. 

1. Who has resigned his post? 

2. Why has the CM. gone to Delhi? 

3. What is the news about world cup? 

4. Who is Ms. World? 

5. What is the weather report? 

B. Speaking 

The following is a dialogue between two friends: 

A : Are you doing anything tomorrow evening? 
B : Yes. I am planning to go to a film. Would you like to join me? 
A : That's a good idea. Which film shall we go to- 'To Sir, with love' or 
'My Fair Lady'? 



181 



B : The film 'My Fair Lady' is showing at 'Sangam'. Do you know 
that it is based on Shaw's play 'Pygmalion' ? I think you would like 
it. 'Pygmalion' is Shaw's magnum opus. Come on. Let's go and 
book the tickets. 

(At the theatre) 

B : Excuse me. Could you reserve two tickets for the first show, 
tomorrow? 

C : Oh, sure! Which class do you prefer? 

B : First class. 

C : I'm afraid all the seats are booked up for the first class. 

B : What about the second show? 

C : Of course, tickets are available. 

B : O.K. then give me two first class tickets. Here's the money. 

C : Here are the tickets. 

B : Thanks. Can you tell me when the show starts? 

C : At ten o'clock. 

B : Thanks a lot. 

C : You're welcome. 

Task 1: Sit in pairs and practise the dialogue with proper accent, in a 
natural way. Change roles and practise again. 

Task 2: In the above dialogue, you might have noticed that the speakers 
used different forms for different functions. There are also other 
ways of expressing the same functions. Write down some more 
forms for each function listed below. 



Functions 


Forms 


1. Fixing an appointment 


Are you doing anything this evening? 


2. Inviting 


Would you like to join me? 


3. Accepting 


That would be fine. 


4. Declining 


I'm sorry, I can't. 


5. Making suggestions 


Shall we...? How about ? 


6. Polite request 


Could you please ? 



Task 3: Work in pairs. Write a dialogue between two friends Mini and 
Meenu coming out of a cinema, discussing the film they have 
just seen. Role-play it. 



182 



C. Reading 
Pre-reading questions 

1 . Give the name of a successful person you know. 

Which of his qualities do you think contributed to his success? 

2. What are your goals in life? 

3. What do you think, this lesson would be about? Guess its theme from 
the title. 

THE ROAD TO SUCCESS 

Success does not mean the absence of failures. 

It means the attainment of ultimate objectives. 

It means winning the war, not every battle. 

- Edwin C Bliss 

The road to success is not a bed of roses. It is full of thorns, pitfalls 
and gins. Only those who wade through the hazards and hurdles with grit 
and determination could smell success. That is how Gandhi became a leader 
par excellence; that made Churchill the greatest and the most successful war 
time leader. These traits and qualities have paid rich dividends to Sachin and 
made him persona grata. After all, winners don't do different things. They 
do things differently. Have you the determination to succeed? Are you willing 
to devote the time and energy necessary to achieve success? 

Here are some proven techniques that will help you to achieve success 
and happiness in life. 

The first step is to set yourself clear goals, to define precisely what 
you want to achieve. Goals provide direction to your behaviour and guide 
your thoughts and actions to the desired outcomes. Goal plans enable you 
to go beyond momentary influences and organise your behaviour over 
extended periods of time. Goals should be an extension of your values, your 
most important fundamental beliefs. 

Specific goals are better than general ones. Self-chosen goals are better 
than assigned ones. Choose goals that are challenging but reachable. Write 
down your short term and long term goals. This will help you in establishing 
priorities and in deciding on the actions that you must engage in. Form a 
very intense, extremely vivid mental picture of what you want. Verbalise 

183 



your mental picture with a brief, concise, forceful 'GOAL COMMAND'. 
Repeat it everyday to make it easier for your sub-conscious mind to embrace 
them. As Swami Vivekananda says, "Take up one idea. Make that one idea 
your life - think of it, dream of it, live on that idea. Let the brain, muscles, 
every part of your body, be full of that idea, and just leave every other idea 
alone. This is the way to success". 

Prepare an 'Action plan', outlining the specific steps needed to 
accomplish the result you want. You must get timely feed-back on your 
progress and be able to modify your strategies when changes occur. 
Sometimes, even if the goals are not attained the resultant consequences, 
feed-back or reinforcement can be beneficial. 

There are literally millions of things in this world which are right and 
which need to be done - but to which you must mentally, if not vocally say 

"No!" 

No person has the time and the ability to do any but a few things 
which need to be done. 

The proven success method is this: 

(1) Say "No" generally. 

(2) Say "yes" very, very selectively 

You simply concentrate your thought, time and effort on your one 
main goal. You cannot possibly do all of the things you will be asked to do. 
So you are going to have to say 'No' to a lot of desirable and worthwhile 
things, simply because they are "incompatible" with the necessary work you 
must do to reach your main goal. 

Don't be afraid of failure. Failure is an accepted procedure in 
experimenting, research, testing and all scientific forms of "finding out". 
Failure is simply the means of finding out what will not work so that it can 
be eliminated in the search for what will work. So there is no need to think 
of failure as something to be feared and avoided. 

Edison and his staff conducted 17,000 experiments which failed before 

they succeeded in the one experiment which enabled them to extract latex in 

substantial quantities from just one variety of plant, which was worth the 

17,000 failures ! Besides, failure is good for your character and personality. 

It is a challenging experience. 

184 



The next step is to develop proper self-concept. What you think 
about yourself is very important. Persons with high self-esteem feel unique, 
competent, secure, empowered and connected to the people around them. 
Whereas people who have poor self-concept feel insecure, lack self- 
confidence and become withdrawn. To improve your self-esteem, become 
aware of your hidden potentialities and activate them. Take note of your 
shortcomings and drawbacks and try to overcome them. You can prepare a 
'Weed list' and a 'Seed list'. Believe firmly that you can improve. As the 
Bhagavad Gita says, "One should lift oneself by one's own efforts and should 
not degrade oneself; for one's own self is one's friend, and one's own self is 
one's enemy". 

Another aspect of self-development is 'Time Management' . Time is 
your most valuable resource. Successful people are those who manage their 
time efficiently. They find time for everything; reading newspapers, jogging 
and even occasional visits to the cinema. Since they have planned everything, 
they feel relaxed and do their work efficiently. What about you? Do you 
make optimum use of your time? To know this, write down all you did 
yesterday with the amount of time spent on each activity. Then you will 
realise how much time is being wasted on useless activities and why you are 
not able to achieve your targets in time. Draw a time-table for your daily 
activities and try to stick to it. Keeping a diary is another useful habit which 
you must cultivate. This will help you review and monitor your progress. 

Many people make themselves miserable by trying to imitate others. 
Mrs. Edith Allred was one such person. She remained unhappy even after 
she married into a poised and self-confident family. A chance remark by her 
mother-in-law transformed her life. While talking about how she brought 
her children up, her mother-in-law said, "No matter what happened, I always 
insisted on their being themselves". In a flash Mrs. Allred realised that she 
had brought misery on herself by trying to fit herself into a pattern to which 
she did not conform. She changed overnight. She started being herself. She 
tried to make a study of her own personality. Now she is the happiest person. 

The renowned psychologist, William James was speaking of people 
who had never found themselves when he declared that the average person 
develops only ten percent of his or her latent abilities. 



185 



You and I have such abilities. So, do not waste a second worrying 
because you are not like other people. Remember you are unique. There 
never was and never will be anybody exactly like you. Make the most of 
what nature gave you. For better or for worse, you must play your own 
instrument in the orchestra of life. 

As Emerson says, "Envy is ignorance and imitation is suicide". No 
real benefit will come to you except through your own toil. Nature has 
given you the power. You only know what you can and cannot do. So, find 
yourself and be yourself. 

There are people who keep on grumbling and complaining. For them 
here is the story of Harold Abbott who used to worry a lot. One day, he 
happened to see a man who had no legs but looked cheerful and happy. He 
greeted him with a grand smile. At that moment, Harold Abbott felt ashamed 
of his self-pity. He realised how rich he was. He had two legs and he could 
walk. This realisation changed his mind. That was a turning point in his life. 

If we want to be happy, all we have to do is to concentrate on the 
ninety percent things that are right in our lives and ignore the ten percent 
that are wrong. 

Think of all we have to be grateful for and thank God for all our boons 
and bounties. Would you sell your eyes for a billion dollars? What would 
you take for your legs? Your hands? Your hearing? Your family? Add up 
your assets and you will find that you won't sell what you have for all the 
gold amassed by the Rockfellers, the Fords and the Morgans combined. So, 
"Count your blessings, not your troubles". 

Make the best of your time. Be optimistic. Plan your work and work 
your plan. Success will knock at your door. Adieu! 



Glossary: 

gin 

par excellence 

persona grata 

outcome 

assign 

concise 



/dZIrV 

/pA:r'eksElA:ns/ 
/pEsEOnE 'grA:tE/ 
/'aOtkVm/ 
/E'saln/ 



/kEn'sals/ 



trap 

by way of special eminence 

one who is held in special favour 

the effect or result of an action 

give as their share of work or 

responsibility 

brief, in a few words 



186 



feedback 


/"fiidbGk/ 


the information got back 


reinforcement 


/ri:In'fC:arErit/ 


strengthening 


withdrawn 


/wIQ'drC:n/ 


(of a person) not wanting to 
communicate with others 


shortcoming 


/'LC:tkVMN/ 


a fault in somebody's character, 
plan or system 


monitor 


/'mBnltE/ 


watch and check something over a 
period of time 


poised 


/pCIzd/ 


in a state of balance 


renown 


/rl'naOrV 


fame 


toil 


/ten/ 


work hard 


boon 


/bu:rV 


a benefit, an advantage 


bounty 


/baOntl/ 


money, etc., given as reward 


adieu 


/E'dju:/ 


a word of farewell 



Choose the synonyms of the italicised words from the options given: 



1. 



3. 



Even if the goals are not attained, the resultant consequences, feed- 
back or reinforcement can be beneficial, 
(a) strengthening (b) weakening (c) forcing (d) rejection 

Failure is simply the means of finding out what will not work so that 
it can be eliminated in the search for what will work, 
(a) included (b) considered (c) excluded (d) destroyed 

So, you are going to have to say 'No' to a lot of desirable and 
worthwhile things, simply because they are incompatible with the 
necessary work you must do to reach your main goal, 
(a) suitable (b) unsuited (c) incomplete (d) harmonious 

Goals guide your thoughts and actions to the desired outcomes. 
(a) aims (b) actions (c) results (d) beliefs 



5. 



Thank God for all our boons and bounties. 

(a) help (b) rewards (c) experiences (d) amounts 

Choose the antonyms of the italicised words from the options given: 

1. The first step is to set yourself clear goals, to define precisely what 
you want to achieve, 
(a) elaborately (b) simply (c) vaguely (d) exactly 

187 



2. Persons with high self-esteem feel unique. 

(a) lonely (b) better (c) unnerved (d) common 

3. She remained unhappy even after she married into a poised and self- 
confident family. 

(a) poor (b) balanced (c) unbalanced (d) arrogant 

4. The average person develops only ten percent of his or her latent 
abilities. 

(a) acquired (b) apparent (c) early (d) inborn 

5. One should lift oneself by one's own efforts and should not degrade 
oneself. 

(a) accuse (b) elevate (c) lower (d) deliver 

Comprehension 
I. Level I 

1. Is the road to success smooth? What is unique about winners? 

2. What is the first step to success? 

3. What is a 'GOAL COMMAND'? 

4. Why should we say 'No' generally? 

5. How should we treat failure? 

6. How can we improve our self-concept? 

7. How do successful people manage their time? 

8. Why was Mrs. Alfred miserable? 

9. What is the message of Emerson? 

10. Which incident brought a turning-point in the life of Harold Abbott? 

1 1 . Why should we be grateful to God? 

12. What are our assets? 

13. How should we tackle our work? 

//. Level II 

1 . Mention briefly the steps that we must take to achieve success in our 
lives. 

2. How can we increase our happiness according to the author? 

3. Which authors and books have been quoted in this essay? 

4. What are the three biographical anecdotes mentioned in the essay? 

5. What two practical suggestions are made, regarding goals and time 
management? 

188 



III. Answer in a paragraph: 

1 . Successful people are those who manage their time efficiently 
- Explain. 

2. Count your blessings, not your troubles - Elaborate. 

IV. Write an essay on: 

The proven techniques that will help one achieve success and happiness 
in life. 

Reading and understanding a questionnaire 

SELF ESTEEM - A Quality check: 

Task: Try to understand the following questions and answer them 
honestly. Answer yes/no to the following questions. You may 
seek your companion 's help to understand the statements better. 

1. You often imitate someone else (e.g. a film actor, politician) in your 
manners and dress. Yes/No 

2. You feel very jealous because you are not like so many others in the 
class. Yes/No 

3. You often boast about the wealth, property, caste, achievements of 
your ancestors. Yes/No 

4. You feel nervous when a group of people are walking towards you 
along the road. Yes/No 

5 . Often you dream about falling from a height, being chased by a monster 
or not being able to do what you are asked to do. Yes/No 

6. You raise your voice during arguments. Yes/No 

7. You show off and pretend to be what you are not and own what you 
don't have. Yes/No 

8. When you make mistakes you have always excuses to offer. 

Yes/No 

9. Even while resting or lying in bed, you are not really relaxed. 

Yes/No 

10. You cannot laugh at your own mistakes and failures. Yes/No 

1 1 . During conversations you think of what you have to say and you do 
not listen to the other person. Yes/No 



189 



12. When the teacher asks a question you are scared to answer because 
the answer may be wrong but when the correct answer was given you 
know you had the right answer. Yes/No 

13. When your classmates get new clothes or special things, you feel 
miserable till you too get similar things. Yes/No 

14. You enjoy jokes made at the expense of others. Yes/No 

15. You may have plans, and begin some of them but are not able to 
complete many of them. Yes/No 

16. You normally are shy to ask others to help you. Yes/No 

1 7 . You often think about your past hurts and deprivations and find yourself 
getting very angry and frustrated. Yes/No 

18. You find it difficult to genuinely appreciate others for their 
achievements. Yes/No 

19. If your work is criticised or if you are not chosen for a job, you sulk 
and avoid it completely. Yes/No 

20. You like to have many friends but you don't like to make friends. You 
expect others to come to you . Yes/No 

The number of questions you have answered in the negative is the 
index of your self-esteem. The more questions you answer in the negative 
the more self-esteem you are supposed to have. But, even five negative 
answers would be enough to build on your sense of self-esteem. You need 
not show the score to anyone, if you don 't wish to. 

Courtesy - Dr. Fr. Peter Francis 

Linking ideas scattered in a text 

Task: Read the following passage and answer the questions given 
below. In order to answer the questions you will have to link 
the ideas scattered in the paragraphs. Therefore answer the 
questions carefully after reading and understanding the ideas 
presented in the passage. 

Things become better when you expect the best instead of the worst. 
The reason is that, being freed from self-doubt, you can put your whole self 
into your endeavour. Nothing can stand in the way of the man who focusses 
his entire self on a problem. 

190 



Expecting the best means that you put your whole heart into what you 
want to accomplish. People are defeated in life not because of lack of ability, 
but for lack of wholeheartedness. 

A major key to success in life, to attaining that which you deeply 
desire, is to be completely released and throw all there is of yourself into 
your studies or any project in which you are engaged. But most people, 
unfortunately, don't do that and this is a tragic cause of failure. 

(Courtesy: Norman Vincent Peale) 

Answer briefly: 

1. How can we attain our goals? 

2. What is the cause of failure with most people? 

Appreciating literature 

Read the following poem and answer the questions given below: 

Teach me to listen, Lord 

Teach me to listen, Lord 

To those nearest me 

My family, my friends, my co-workers 

Help me to be aware that 

No matter what words I hear 

The message is, 

" Accept the person I am, Listen to me." 

Teach me to listen, Lord 

To those far from me 

The whisper of the hopeless 

The plea of the forgotten 

The cry of the anguished. 

Teach me to listen, Lord 

To myself 

Help me to be less afraid 

To trust the voice inside 

In the deepest part of me. 

191 



Teach me to listen, Lord 

For your voice 

In busyness and in boredom 

In certainty and in doubt 

In noise and in silence 
Teach me, Lord, to listen. 



Anonymous 



Answer the following questions: 

1 . Which line is repeated in all the four stanzas? Why? 

2. Which is the prevailing sentiment of the second stanza? 

3. What is the message of the third stanza? 

4. How is alliteration handled in the fourth stanza? 

5. What is the over- all mood of the poem? 

D. Vocabulary 

I. English has borrowed liberally from languages like Latin, French, 
Spanish and German. 

Look at the following words/phrases taken from the lesson: 

Gandhiji became a leader par excellence. 

have paid rich dividends to Sachin and made him persona 

grata . 

Success will knock at your door. Adieu ! 

The underlined words/phrases are foreign words/phrases. They are 
known as loan words too. 

Here are some foreign words/phrases used in English, with their 
meanings: 

1 . Ravi has finished his written examination. Now he is preparing for the 
viva voce , (a spoken examination) 

2. All bonafide (genuine) cases of hardship will receive help. 

3. The parliament has been adjourned sine die , (without a date being 
fixed) 

4. You must send a resume (a summary) of your academic and professional 

achievements along with the application. 

1 92 



5. The speaker reviewed the status quo (the situation or state of affairs 
as it is now) of our relations with Pakistan. 

6. The plan is wrong in toto. (totally) 

7. The students joined the movement en masse , (as a whole group) 

8 . You must establish a good rapport (a close relationship in which people 
understand each other very well) with your family. 

9. Liaison (coordination of activities) between different departments is 
essential for the successful functioning of any company. 

10. I said to my friend who was leaving for the U.S.A., " Have a nice trip ! 
Bon voyage. " (saying good bye and wishing good luck) 

Taskl: Use the above underlined words/phrases in sentences of your 
own. 

Task 2: Practise the pronunciation of the foreign words/phrases. 

1. viva voce /valvE 'vEOsI/ 

2. bonafide /bEOnE'faldl/ 

3 . sine die /salnl'dali : / 

4. resume /'rezju:mel/ 

5. status quo /steltEs 'kwEO/ 

6. in toto /in'tEOtEC/ 

7. en masse /A:m'mGs/ 

8. rapport /rG'pC:/ 

9. liaison /H'elzErV 

10. bon voyage /bBn 'vCIjA:Z/ 

Task 3: Refer to the dictionary and find out the meanings of the 
following foreign words/phrases. Use them in sentences of your 
own. 

ex gratia, ad hoc, prima facie, in camera, via media 

Task 4: Can you think of other such words and phrases that you have 
heard or used? Make a list. 

11. Look at the following words taken from the lesson. 

momentary, conscious, conform 

Are they not often misused, as you are confused and unsure about the 
spelling and meaning? 

193 



They are often confused with momentous, conscience and confirm 
respectively. 

Here are some words which are often confused or misused. Learn to use 
them appropriately. 

1. ascent: climbing a way sloping up 
assent: agreement, to agree 

e.g. The ascent of Mt. Everest was an arduous affair. 
Finally the parliament has given assent to the bill. 

2. alternate: one of every two, follow one after the other 
alternative: choice between two or more things 

e.g. I visit the library on alternate Sundays. 

Because of the transport workers strike, we had to find an 
alternative transport. 

3. beside: at the side of, close to 
besides: in addition to 

e.g. My friend sits beside me in the class. 

Besides playing tennis she also excels in chess. 

4. complement (v): to add new or contrasting features to improve 

something 
compliment: express praise or approval 

e.g. His communication skills complement his excellent academic 
record. 
I complimented him on his excellent presentation. 

5. continuous: going on without stopping 
continual: occurring repeatedly 

e.g. Education is a continuous process. 
There was continual rain last week. 

6. childish: behaving like a child, not mature 
childlike: like or typical of a child 

e.g. Many grown-ups still possess a childish attitude. 
His childlike innocence endears him to all. 

194 



7. disinterested: not influenced by personal feelings or interest 
uninterested: having no interest or feelings 

e.g. Scientists approach problems with disinterested curiosity. 
My friend is completely uninterested in sports. 

8. historic: important in history or likely to be considered important 
at some time in the future 

historical: based on history 

e.g. Man's landing on the moon was an historic occasion. 
We must place these events in their historical perspective. 

9. insidious: sly, cunning 

invidious: a job or task that is unpleasant to do, because it is likely 
to make you unpleasant 

e.g. His writings are an insidious form of propaganda. 
The role of the critic is an invidious one. 

10. personal: pertaining to a person 
personnel: body of employees 

e.g. We must not interfere in the personal matters of others. 
My brother works as a personnel officer. 

Task: Fill in the blanks choosing the correct word from those given 
in brackets. 

1. We will have to find sources of energy in the future. 

(alternate, alternative) 
2 salary, the company also provides free accommodation. 

(beside, besides) 

3. The in the army are expected to maintain a high 

standard of discipline. 

(personal, personnel) 

4. Our government is taking steps to counter the attempts of 

the enemy to create unrest in our country. 

(insidious, invidious) 

5. The signing of the peace treaty was an occasion. 

(historic, historical ) 

195 



6. A judge must examine the case in a/an manner. 

(disinterested, uninterested) 

7. The journey for 6 hours made him exhausted. 

(continuous, continual) 

8. He has not yet got over his habits. 

(childlike, childish) 

9. Their to the peak was beset with many hurdles. 

(ascent, assent) 

10. We usually a person on his success. 

(compliment, complement) 

E. Study skills: 

Note making 

We make notes to record the important points of a text for future 
reference. In note-making, we identify the main points, condense the 
information and organise it in a systematic way. 

When making notes: 

• Read the passage once quickly. 

• Underline the key items (not necessarily words) during the second 
reading. 

• Condense the information by using numbers instead of figures, reduced 
forms of verbs, abbreviations and acronyms and by omitting examples. 

• Organise the condensed information in a suitable form. 

Read the following paragraph and see how notes have been made on it. 

Most people are afraid of snakes - but this fear is as irrational as the 
fear of ghosts. The fear of snakes, according to some biologists , may be an 
instinct passed on to us by our ancestors . There may be some truth in this 
theory , because monkeys have a deep, instinctive fear of pythons and other 
tree snakes . Or, it might be that we learn the fear of snakes as children, from 
grown-ups . Anyway snakes have been feared and hated for thousands of 
years, and in the literature of many countries the snake is regarded as a 
symbol of evil . 

Whatever the truth, there is no reason for the terror which the sight of 
a snake causes in most people. Many more people are killed , much more 

196 



frequently, by motor-cycles and cigarettes than by snakes. The majority of 
snakes are harmless , and are only too anxious to avoid human beings . Of the 
poisonous snakes, only those found in the sea are always dangerous ; being 
aggressive by nature, they can attack human beings for no reason at all 
taking a fisherman or swimmer by surprise in the water, where the man is 
somewhat helpless. 

1 . fear of snakes irrational 

2. (a) biologist's theory - fear, instinct transmitted by ancestors 
e.g. monkeys' instinctive fear of pythons, tree snakes 

(b) fear, learnt as children from grown-ups 

3. (a) snakes feared and hated for many years 

(b) regarded symbol of evil in literature of many countries 

4. fear unreasonable- more people killed by motor-cycles & cigarettes 

5. majority snakes harmless, anxious to avoid humans 

6. (a) sea snakes poisonous, dangerous 

(b) aggressive - attack fishermen, swimmer without reason, by surprise 

Read the following passage and the notes given below: 

We must seek out problems and convert them to challenges ! We need 
to welcome problems with arms open. Embrace them because this can well 
be some of the finest parts of living. Many older people look back on the 
years they spent wondering how they would meet the expenses of raising a 
family, coping with the problems, the illness - in some instances, the vexations 
of their children. They look back now and think, 'those were the most 
developmental, the most rewarding, the most wonderful years of my life. If 
I could have only recognised it then.' 

What they're saying, in effect, is that they should have welcomed 
problems. Encountering a stream of problems day after day made their lives 
warm and meaningful. It gave them confidence. Welcome problems, reach 
out for them, charge into them and convert them in your mind immediately 
to challenges. The negative way to look at a problem is to think of it as a 
problem. Search it out, isolate it as a problem, then in your mind convert it 
to a challenge, determine the steps that you will need to surmount it just as 
the pole-vaulter needs to first determine steps and then work at it. Only in 

197 



this way do you develop the skill, the co-ordination, the mind, the muscle 
and the confidence to really get it done. 

- Joe. D. Batten and Leonard C.Hudson 

• What should be our attitude towards problems? 

- should welcome and embrace them, and convert them to challenges 

• What has been the experience of many older people? 

- they look back now, on the years they spent worrying about their 
problems and think those were the most developmental and rewarding 
years of their lives. They wish they had recognised it then 

• What is the negative way of looking at a problem? 

- to think of it as a problem 

• How do problems affect us? 

- they make our life meaningful and give us confidence 

• How should we tackle a problem? 

- search it out, isolate it as a problem, convert it to a challenge, 
determine the steps that you need to surmount it 

Remember: Notes can also be in the form of such questions and answers. 
Task 1: Make notes on the following passage. 

The value of Games in Education 

The aim of education is to enable the human personality to grow to its 
full stature. Man has a body, a mind and a spirit. Accordingly, education 
aims at the physical, the intellectual, the spiritual and moral development of 
man. 

Games are a means of keeping the body healthy and fit. Physical fitness 
and freedom from all kinds of ailments are the desire and ambition of every 
human being. Indeed, good health is the first condition of happiness in life. 
Those who play games generally maintain good health. Games are an excellent 
means of bodily exercise. Whether it is sophisticated games like hockey, 
football and tennis or simple games like kabaddi, they all provide the much 
needed exercise to the body and thus keep the body healthy and strong. 
Players always have a better appetite and a better digestion than those who 
play no games or take no exercise. Games not only make the body healthy 
and strong, they also make it muscular. 

198 



Apart from building the body, games are an excellent recreation or 
pastime. Education teaches people the need and value of recreational 
activities. Education does not approve of the book-worm, who is lost in 
books all the time. Recreation is necessary. And games are among the most 
interesting recreations in the world. The essence of recreation is that it 
refreshes both body and mind and provides a means of escape from one's 
professional or scholarly pursuits. Thus games are very useful as a diversion 
for the mind. 

Task 2: Underline the key points in the following passage. 

There are other uses of language which are not concerned with the 
communication of thoughts. The conversations which English people hold 
about the weather, for example, do not as a rule leave the participants any 
wiser; only on rare occasions can information be said to have been exchanged. 
As far as communicating thought is concerned, they get nowhere; are they 
then quite pointless? No; a little reflection will show that this kind of use of 
language also has great social value. 

Most people have a feeling that a silent man is a dangerous man. Even 
if there is nothing to say, one must talk, and conversation puts people at 
their ease and in harmony with one another. This sociable use of language 
has been given the name 'phatic communion' . The anthropologist Bronis 
Law Malinowski invented the term. Malinowski defined it as 'a type of 
speech in which ties of union are created by mere exchange of words'. It 
enters the everyday experience of everybody from the most highly civilised 
to the most primitive and, far from being useless, this small-talk is essential 
to human beings getting along together at all. 

- David Abercrombie 

F. Grammar: 

I. Relative Clauses 

Look at the following sentence taken from the lesson. 

People who have poor self-concept feel insecure. 

The same sentence can be written with a comma after the noun and at 
the end of the clause following it. 

199 



People, who have poor self-concept, feel insecure. 

You can see that both the sentences have the same words in the same 
order, the only difference being that the second sentence has commas 
separating the items. They have different meanings. Can you guess them? 

Now, study the following two sentences: 

1 . Children who are intelligent by nature should be sent to school early. 

2. Children, who are intelligent by nature, should be sent to school early. 

The first sentence means that only those children who are intelligent 
should be sent to the school early. Whereas the second one states that all 
children are intelligent by nature and they should be sent to school early. 
The first sentence is a defining relative clause and the second one with 
commas is a non-defining relative clause. 

Task 1: Explain how the following two sentences differ in their 
meaning: 

1 . My wife who is in Mumbai is coming tomorrow. 

2. My wife, who is in Mumbai, is coming tomorrow. 

Read the following dialogue. 

Ravi : Have you brought the book? 

Rahim : Which book? 

Ravi : The book that I borrowed from the library . 

1 
Rahim : I'm sorry, I have lent it to Peter, who is my neighbour. 

2 
In 1 , 'that I borrowed from the library' specifies which book is being 
talked about. It is a defining relative clause. In '2', 'who is my neighbour,' 
only adds additional information about Peter. It is called a non-defining 
relative clause. 

A clause can be subordinate by modifying a noun phrase in the other 
clause. Such clauses are called relative clauses. There are three kinds of 
relative clauses: defining, non-defining and connective. 

200 



Defining relative clauses: 

These describe the preceding noun in such a way as to distinguish it 
from other nouns of the same class. A clause of this kind is essential to the 
clear understanding of the noun in the sentence. 

The woman who gave me this refused to reveal her name. 

'Who gave me this,' is the relative clause. If we omit this, it is not 
clear what woman we are talking about. Notice that there is no comma 
between a noun and a defining relative clause. The relative pronouns used in 
the defining relative clause are, 'who, that, which, whose,' etc. 

Non-defining relative clauses: 

Non-defining relative clauses are placed after nouns which are definite 
already. They merely give some more information about the noun. They are 
not essential in the sentence and can be omitted without causing confusion. 
Unlike defining relatives, they are separated from their noun by commas. 
The construction is fairly formal and more common in written than in spoken 
English. 

e.g. My neighbour, who is very pessimistic, says that there will be no 
rains this year. 

In addition to relative pronouns, there are relative adverbs like 'where,' 
'when,' 'that,' which also introduce relative clauses. 

e.g. The house where I spent my childhood was very big. 
The year when I was born was full of interesting events. 

Task 2: Pick out from the lesson those sentences which have relative 
clauses and find out whether they are defining or non-defining. 

Task 3: Identify the relative clauses in the following sentences and say 
whether they are defining or non-defining. 

1. The principle of non-violence, which Gandhiji preached, can alone 
save the world from annihilation. 

2. Men who possess an optimistic outlook take problems in their stride. 

3. Bertrand Russell, who was a great philosopher, wanted people to 
develop scientific temper. 

4. People who do not manage their time efficiently will fail in life. 

201 



5. We must learn from those who have achieved their goals inspite of 
hurdles and hardships. 

Task 4: a) Combine the following sentences using a relative clause. 

1 . Those people feel miserable. They try to imitate others. 

2. Such goals are better. They are chosen by yourself. 

3. Time is the most valuable resource. It must be utilised properly. 

4. William James was a famous psychologist. He advised people to find 
themselves. 

5. One day Harold Abbott saw a man. That man had no legs. 

6. A chance remark transformed Mrs. Edith Alfred. It was made by her 
mother-in-law. 

b) 1. The boys will be given scholarships. Their parents are poor. 

2. You sent me a present. Thank you very much for it. 

3. The car crashed into a queue of people. Four of them were killed. 

4. Gandhiji led India's freedom struggle. He did not like violence. 

5. Ravi had been driving all day. He was tired and wanted to stop. 

Task 5: Combine the following using relative clauses into a single 
sentence. 

1 . I missed the train. I usually catch this train. And I had to travel on 
the next. This was a slow train. 

2. Do you know the person? He took away the books. I had placed them 
on the table. 

3. Tom came to the party in patched jeans. This surprised the other 
guests. Most of the other guests were wearing evening dress. 

4. The firm is sending me to Surat. I work for this firm. Surat is famous 
for textile goods. 

5. There were a lot of strangers. Some of them were speaking a language. 
I could not understand it. 

6. The boys are selected for the scholarship. They pass the examination. 
It is conducted every year. 

7. Which is the house? You were talking about it. We were bathing at 
that time. 

8. Tagore was given the Nobel Prize. He wrote the 'Gitanjali' . The Nobel 
Prize is the most prestigious award in the world. 

202 



9. The car had bad brakes. We were in this car. And the man didn't know 
the way. This man was driving the car. 

10. Mahesh is the son of Mrs. & Mr. Murthy. Mahesh was born in New 
Delhi. New Delhi is the capital of India. 

Task 6: a) Refer to a dictionary and match the following and frame 
sentences using them. 



b) 



e.g. An ornithologist is 

1. entomologist 

2.archeologist 

3. pathologist 

4.musicologist 

5. palaeontologist 

6. sinologist 

Refer to the dictionary 
terms. 



a scientist who studies birds. 

(a) one who studies diseases 

(b) one who studies insects 

(c) one who studies China 

(d) one who studies the fossils 

(e) one who studies music 

(f) one who studies ancient cultures by 
analysing the physical remains 

and write the definition for the following 



e.g. optimist - An optimist is a person who is always hopeful. 

1. pessimist 

2. teetotaller 

3. philanthropist 

4. misanthrope 



5. 
6. 
7. 
8. 
9. 



sadist 

octogenarian 

polyglot 

hedonist 

misogynist 



10. pugilist 

//. Simple, Compound and Complex sentences 

A simple sentence consists of a single independent clause. 
e.g. John plays the guitar. 

A compound sentence has two or more clauses which are linked by 
coordinating conjunctions 'and', 'or' and 'but'. 

e.g. John plays the guitar, and his sister plays the piano. 

203 



They are my neighbours, but I don't know them well. 
They are students or they are tourists. 

A complex sentence has two or more clauses, at least one of which is 
subordinate to a main clause. 

e.g. Though they are my neighbours, I don't know them well. 

Some subordinating conjunctions are 'after, though, as, because, before, 
if, since, that, when, where, how,' etc. There are also compound subordinates 
like 'in that, so that, in order that, so far as, as soon as' etc. 

There are different types of subordinate clauses. Noun clause (that 
clause, wh clause), Relative clause and Adverbial clause. 

A Compound or Complex sentence can be changed into a simple 
sentence by reducing one of the finite clauses into a non-finite clause or a 
phrase. 

e.g. 1 . Choose goals that are challenging and reachable. 
(Complex sentence) is re-written as 

Choose challenging and reachable goals. (Simple sentence) 
2. Since they have planned everything, they feel relaxed. 

(Complex sentence) is changed to 
Having planned everything, they feel relaxed. (Simple sentence) 

3. Goals provide direction to your behaviour and guide your 
thoughts and actions. 
(Compound sentence) is re-written as 

Providing direction to your behaviour, goals guide your thoughts and 
action. (Simple sentence) 

Task 1: Change the following as directed: 

a) 1 . Here are some proven techniques that will help you to achieve 
success and happiness in life. 
(Change into a Simple sentence) 

2. Persons with high self-esteem feel unique and competent. 
(Change into a Complex sentence) 

3 . To improve your self-esteem, become aware of your potentialities . 

(Change into a Complex sentence) 

204 



4. Successful people are those who manage their time efficiently. 
(Change into a Simple sentence) 

5. Many people make themselves miserable by trying to imitate 
others. 

(Change into a Compound sentence) 

6. She remained unhappy even after she married into a poised and 
self-confident family. 

(Change into a Compound and a Simple sentence) 

7 . If we want to be happy, we have to concentrate on the things that 
are right. 

(Change into a Compound sentence) 

8. Once he happened to see a man who had no legs. 
(Change into a Simple sentence) 

9. He had two legs and he could walk. 
(Change into a Complex sentence) 

10. William James, who was a renowned psychologist says that the 
average person uses only 10% of his abilities. 

(Change into a Simple sentence) 

b) Do as directed: 

1 . Being asked the reason for absence, I told him what had happened. 
(Change the phrase into a clause) 

2. Though he was disabled, he was very cheerful 
(Use 'inspiteof') 

3. If you meet with failure in your attempts, change your strategy. 
(Use 'in case of) 

4. Time is too precious to be wasted in frivolous pursuits. (Use 'so that 
not') 

5. He plans his work in order to finish his target in time, (use 'so that') 

6. Many people fail in life because they lack confidence, ('because of) 

7. The bus was full of passengers and so I decided to take the next one. 
(Use 'as') 

8. He finished the work. Then he left the office. 
(Use 'after') 

205 



9. I am delighted to know that you have won the match. 
(Change the underlined words into a phrase) 

10. I do not know how I should tackle this problem. 
(Change the underlined words into a phrase) 

Read the simplified passage on the left. Then read the original, authentic 
passage on the right and see how ideas have been linked, by using complex 
and compound sentences resulting in syntactic compression. 



Simplified passage 


Original passage 


The great experiment has just 
begun. It may be defeated. There 
is high birth rate among some 
people. They are full of 
indoctrinated ignorance. Let us 
imagine the full fruitage of 
instruction. Every child should be 
schooled till at least he is twenty. 
Every child should find free access 
to the universities, libraries and 
museums. These places harbour 
and offer the intellectual and 
artistic, treasures of the race. We 
should not consider education as 
the painful accumulation of facts 
and dates and reigns. It is not even 
the necessary preparation of the 
individual to earn his upkeep in the 
world. It is the transmission of our 
mental, moral and aesthetic 
heritage as fully as possible to as 
many as possible. The purpose is 
to enlighten man's understanding, 
control embellishment and 
enjoyment of life. 


The great experiment has just 
begun and it may yet be defeated 
by the high birth rate of unwilling 
or indoctrinated ignorance. But 
what would be the full fruitage 
of instruction if every child should 
be schooled till at least the 
twentieth year, and should find 
free access to the universities, 
libraries and museums that 
harbour and offer the intellectual 
and artistic, treasures of the race? 
Consider education not as the 
painful accumulation of facts and 
dates and reigns, nor merely the 
necessary preparation of the 
individual to earn his keep in the 
world, but as the transmission of 
our mental, moral, technical and 
aesthetic heritage as fully as 
possible to as many as possible 
for the enlightenment of man's 
understanding, control 
embellishment, and enjoyment of 
hfe - Will Durant. 



206 



Task!: Split the original passage on the left into simple sentences and 
rewrite it on the right. 



Original passage 


Simplified passage 


Science affects the average man 
and woman in two ways already. 
He or she benefits by its 
applications, driving in a motorcar 
or an omnibus instead of a horse- 
drawn vehicle, being treated for a 
disease by a doctor or a surgeon 
rather than a priest or a witch and 
being killed with an automatic 
pistol or shell in place of a dagger 
or a battle-axe.- J B S Haldane 





G. Writing: 

Presenting data in tabular form: 

Task 1: Write down your short term and long term goals and your action 
plan to achieve the goal. You can use the format given below. 
Sit in pairs and discuss them with your partner. Make helpful 
suggestions to each other. Remember, when writing data in a 
tabular form it should be in the form of points and not complete 
sentences. 



I. Short term goals 


Action plan to achieve the goal 


1. 

2. 
3. 




II. Long Term Goals 


Action plan to achieve the goal 


1. 

2. 
3. 





207 



Task 2: This task will help you discover yourself . Answer the following 
questions by filling in the table given below. 

i. What do you think of yourself? 
(in terms of qualities, skills, characteristics, strengths, 
weaknesses) 

ii. How do your friends describe you? 





My opinion 


My friends' opinion 


Qualities 






Skills 






Characteristics 






Strengths 






Weaknesses 







Task 3: Becoming aware of your drawbacks is the first step towards 
success. Think of all your bad habits and drawbacks and list 
them under the 'WEED LIST'. Put down the positive qualities 
you would like to cultivate under the 'SEED LIST'. Try to 
implement the 'SEED LIST. ' 





WEED 


SEED 


1 






2 






3 






4 






5 







H. Occupational Competency: 

On several occasions we are required to fill in forms for different 
purposes. We need to fill in an application form for a job, an examination, 
passport, driving licence, etc. There are also forms to be filled in for sending 
a telegram, opening a bank account, etc. 

Application forms should be filled in with great care, giving all the 

details asked for, because incomplete application forms may be rejected. 

208 



For permanent and longer placements, it is desirable to enclose a C.V or 
Curriculum vitae, written in a suitable format along with a covering letter. 

The C.V or Resume is a fact sheet that summarises one's experience, 
education, position, awards and achievements for prospective employees. 
C.V's are often made in a tabular form. Name, address and other vital statistics 
(bio-data) appear first. Then follow educational qualification and experience 
in reverse chronological order. Achievements though remotely relevant to 
the position applied for, may be highlighted because the employer often 
appreciates those who have achieved more than their peers regardless of the 
nature of the accomplishments. 

Task: During the summer holidays, a two-week exhibition on 
Tamilnadu's rich cultural heritage and history is being 
conducted in Madurai. The organisers - 'Tamilnadu Tourism 
Development Board' - have advertised in a leading newspaper, 
asking for student-guides to show the tourists around the 
various stalls and explain the displays to them. It is a 10.00 
a.m. to 8.00 p.m. job. The applicants are expected to be well- 
versed in a few languages besides having a sound knowledge 
of India's history. You need money as you are saving to buy an 
encyclopaedia. Therefore you decide to apply. You are asked to 
apply along with your curriculum vitae. Fill in the following 
letter applying for the job. Also fill in the curriculum vitae that 
follows. 

From 05 



To 

'Tamilnadu Tourism Development Board' 

169, Anna Salai 

Chennai 600 002. 

209 



Sir/Madam, 

Sub : Application for post of at the 'Tamilnadu Cultural 

Heritage and History Exhibition' 

Ref: Your advertisement in dt 

In response to your in dt , I am 

sending my for the post of at the 

I have completed my 

standard. History being my subject, I've always been a topper in my 

class. I'm very much interested in the cultural and history of 

I am willing to work from 10.00 a.m. to I enclose 

my for further details. 

If selected, I assure you that I will work to the best of my ability. 
Hoping to hear from you. 

Yours , 

( ) 

Curriculum vitae 

1. Name : 

2. Father's name : 

3. Postal Address : 
Pincode : 

4. Nationality : 

5. Date of birth : 

6. Sex : 

7. Educational Qualification : 

8. Languages known : 

9. Interests 

(a) Sports and games : 

(b) Hobbies : 

(c) Other extra-curricular activities : 

10. Prizes and Awards : 

1 1 . Names and addresses of two references : 
Station: 

Date: Signature of the Applicant 

210 



/. Strategic competency: 

Guessing the meaning of unfamiliar words from the context. 

When you come across a new word, it is not always necessary to refer 
to a dictionary, you can easily guess its meaning from the context. 

You can employ a number of tactics to infer the meaning. 

• Think of another word that makes sense in the context. 

• Break down complex sentences into simple components. 

• Apply your knowledge of parts of speech, collocation, discourse 
markers and grammatical structure. 

Task: Choose the word which gives the meaning of the underlined 
word. 

1 . We must do our best to mitigate the suffering of others, 
(a) increase (b) reduce (c) ignore (d) accelerate 

2. Paucity of funds has led to the abandonment of the project, 
(a) plenty (b) surplus (c)small amount (d) meagreness 

3. To the people's dismay the law and order situation is deteriorating day 
by day. 

(a) improving (b) lessening (c) worsening (d) stabilising 

4. The apathy of the public towards the downtrodden is to be condemned, 
(a) enthusiasm (b) views (c) majority (d) lack of concern 

5. We must be pragmatic in our outlook. 

(a) idealistic (b) realistic (c) impartial (d) opinionated 

6. The emancipation of women is an item of top priority in the modern 
world. 

(a) slavery (b) setting free (c) subjugation (d) empowerment 

7. A Commission of enquiry exonerated him from all responsibility for 
the accident. 

(a) faulted (b) declared free (c) criticised (d) appreciated 

8 . Atomic energy, if misused will annihilate the whole of the human race, 
(a) destroy (b) control (c) separate (d) save 

9. The campus doesn't have a congenial climate for higher studies, 
(a) healthy (b) suitable (c) adverse (d) unhealthy 

10. Religious fanaticism is inimica l to national integration, 
(a) suitable (b) alien (c) harmful (d) acceptable 

211 



/. Creative Competency: 

I. Look at the sentence taken from the lesson. 'Count your blessings, 
not your troubles' - this is a kind of a catchy slogan for being 
optimistic in life. 

Writing slogans for advertising a brand or a movement is a creative 
activity requiring imagination and literary talent. Slogans should be short, 
catchy and should highlight the merits of the item or movement, evoking a 
desirable response in the readers. 

Here are some popular slogans: 

'Owner's pride and neighbour's envy' - Television 

'Why be in line, when you can be on-line' - Internet Banking 

'Stronger than the strongest' - my teeth 

'Speed thrills but kills.' 

'Be Indian, Buy Indian.' 

'One family, One child.' 

'You reach before you start.' 

'Arise, Awake and stop not till the goal is reached.' 

'Workers of all nations, unite; you have nothing to lose but your chains. 
You have a world of freedom to win. . . ' 

Task 1: Write a catchy advertisement slogan for a new brand of hair- 
oil/ tooth paste/soap. 

Task 2: Write a slogan for: 

1. Creating awareness of environmental pollution 

2. Abolishing child labour 

3. Rain water harvesting 

II. Interviewing a famous personality for TV 

Task: You are to interview for TV, a person who has achieved success 
in some field, for instance, a state rank holder. Discuss in groups 
the questions that you would like to ask him/her. Remember, 
the questions should highlight the qualities which helped him/ 
her on the road to success. Write them down. 

212 



Self evaluation: 

Task 1: Fill in the blanks, choosing the appropriate expressions from 
the box. 

reinforce, sinedie, resume, bonafide, rapport 

1 . The headmaster has an excellent with his staff. 

2. Giving appreciation is the way to desirable behaviour. 

3. For getting a scholarship, you must submit a certificate that you are a 
student. 

4. In view of the acute water scarcity, colleges have been 
closed 

5. While applying for a job, you must prepare an impressive 

Task 2: Rewrite the following as directed. 

1 . The common people know very little but they possess a certain common 
sense. 

(Change into a complex sentence) 

2. It is an essential characteristic of democracy that the decision of the 
majority shall be accepted. 

(Change into a simple sentence) 

3. If the minority has no share in ruling, such a system cannot properly 
be considered a democratic one. 

(Change into a simple sentence) 

4. Before I start the serious business of writing a story, I like to sketch it 
out in a rough sort of way. 

(Change into a simple sentence) 

5 . Those people must develop good working habits . They want to achieve 
great things. 

(Combine using 'who') 



213 



POEM 

BE THE BEST 

It you can't be a pine on the top of the hill, 
Be a scrub in the valley - but be 
The best little scrub by the side of the rill; 
Be a bush, if you can't be a tree. 
If you can't be a bush, be a bit of the grass, 
And some highway happier make; 
If you can't be a muskie, then just be a bass- 
But the liveliest bass in the lake! 
We can't all be captains, we've got to be crew, 
There's something for all of us here. 
There's big work to do and there's lesser to do 
And the task we must do is the near. 
If you can't be a highway, then just be a trail, 
If you can't be the sun, be a star; 
It isn't by size that you win or you fail- 
Be the best of whatever you are! 

- Douglas Malloch 

Glossary 

scrub : bushes and small trees 

bass : an edible fish 

rill : a small stream 

muskie : a type of rose that smells like musk 

Comprehension questions: 

1. Some lofty and lowly things are compared in this poem What are 
they? 

2. We can't all be captains, we've got to be crew - Explain. 

3 . Is size important in life? 

4. What should be our attitude towards work? 

5. What is the message of the poem? 

214 



Appreciation questions: 

1 . Write down the rhyming words in the poem. 

2. Which line do you like most? 

3. If you can't be then be 

Complete the sentence with suitable ideas. 

4. Could you add two more lines to the poem - 
If you can't be then just be 

5. Which structure gets repeated in the poem? 

6. How is 'repetition' effectively made use of in this poem? 

7. Some expressions in the poem bring vivid pictures to our minds. Can 
you identify some of them? 

Parallel Reading 

Here is a piece from Shakespeare's 'Hamlet'. Go through it and 
summarise its message. 

Polonius' advice to his son 

And these few precepts in thy memory 

Look thou character. Give thy thoughts no tongue, 

Nor any unproportion'd thought his act. 

Be thou familiar, but by no means vulgar. 

Those friends thou hast, and their adoption tried, 

Grapple them to thy soul with hoops of steel; 

But do not dull thy palm with entertainment 

Of each new - hatch'd, unfledg'd courage. 

Beware 

Of entrance to a quarrel; but, being in, 

Bear't that th' opposed may beware of thee. 

Give every man thy ear, but few thy voice 

Take each man's censure, but reserve thy judgment. 

Costly thy habit as thy purse can buy, 

But not express'd in fancy; rich, not gaudy; 

For the apparel oft proclaims the man; 



Neither a borrower nor a lender be; 

For loan oft loses both itself and friend, 

And borrowing dulls the edge of husbandry. 

This above all - to thine own self be true, 

And it must follow, as the night the day, 

Thou canst not then be false to any man. 

215 



UNIT - VI 

A LISTENING: Listening to a television interview 

B SPEAKING: Making enquiries at the post office 

C READING: Understanding tables, instructions, etc. 
Understanding different registers 

D VOCABULARY: Using abbreviations and acronyms 

Building words with particular suffixes (-cide, -mania, -phobia) 
Using terms referring to character 
Using phrasal verbs and idioms 

E STUDY SKILLS: Note taking 

F GRAMMAR: Using reported speech 
Using reported connectives 

G WRITING : Writing Business letters 

H OCCUPATIONAL COMPETENCY: Writing a story based on a 
picture 

I STRATEGIC COMPETENCY: Expressing beliefs on language 
learning 

J CREATIVE COMPETENCY: Writing an article for the sports 
column of a newspaper 
Writing drafts for compering TV/Radio programmes 



216 



A. Listening 

"An officer in Andhra Pradesh who was in charge of tribal development 
found that the tribals put certain gums and wood materials in turbid water to 
make the water clear. Apparently some chemical or physical action takes 
place which absorbs the materials that make the water turbid. Being curious 
this officer approached a few scientists, who, on experimentation, found 
that materials used by the tribals even had the property of absorbing heavy 
minerals, such as nuclear metals." 

- India 2020 

Let us imagine that the officer is interviewed on television. 

Task: Your teacher will read the interview. Listen carefully and answer 
the following questions. 

(The teacher reads) 

Answer the following questions in a sentence or two: 

1 . Who was interviewing Mr.Reddy? 

2. What was the nature of Mr.Reddy's work? 

3. What did Mr.Reddy learn from the tribal people? 

4. How did the bark of wood purify the turbid water? 

5. Was Mr.Reddy successful in identifying the tree? 

6. If Mr.Reddy succeeds in his attempt, how do you think it will be 
beneficial to our country? 

B. Speaking 

At the Post Office 

The following is a dialogue between a youngster and an official at the 
post office: 

Good morning, Sir. 

Good morning. What can I do for you? 

I need a clarification, Sir. 

What is it? 

I want to send an application to Bangalore. Which 
is better, by speed post or by registered post? 

217 



Youngster 

Post office official 

Youngster 

Post office official 

Youngster 



Post office official 

Youngster 

Post office official 



Post office official : By speed post the letter will reach within twenty- 
four hours. If you send by registered post with 
acknowledgement due, you will get confirmation of 
receipt. 

Youngster : If I send by registered post with acknowledgement 

due will it take more time? 
Generally not. Sometimes it might get delayed. 
Okay sir. I will send it by speed post. 
Please pay Rs.30/- and here is the receipt. You better 
preserve the receipt. 

Youngster : Thank you, Sir. 

Task 1: Practise the above conversation taking roles. 

Task 2: Imagining yourself to be a layman ask a few questions to 
another student who takes the role of a clerk in a post office 
regarding the sending of money order. 

C. Reading 

Pre-reading questions 

1. Do you think India enjoys a developed nation status among the 
countries of the world? 

2. Who do you think can lead a country to prosperity ? 

VISION FOR THE NATION 

India is a nation of a billion people. A nation's progress 

depends upon how its people think. It is thoughts which 

are transformed into actions. India has to think as a nation 

of a billion people. Let the young minds blossom -full of 

thoughts, the thoughts of prosperity. 

Nations are built by the imagination and untiring enthusiastic efforts 
of generations. One generation transfers the fruits of its toil to another which 
then takes forward the mission. As the coming generation also has its dreams 
and aspirations for the nation's future, it therefore adds something from its 
side to the national vision; which the next generation strives hard to achieve. 
This process goes on and the nation climbs steps of glory and gains higher 
strength. 

218 



The first vision: Freedom of India 

Any organisation, society or even a nation without a vision is like a 
ship cruising on the high seas without any aim or direction. It is clarity of 
national vision which constantly drives the people towards the goal. 

Our last generation, the glorious generation of freedom fighters, led 
by Mahatma Gandhi, and many others set for the nation a vision of free 
India. This was the first vision, set by the people for the nation. It therefore 
went deep into the minds and the hearts of the masses and soon became the 
great inspiring and driving force for the people to collectively plunge into 
the struggle for freedom movement. The unified dedicated efforts of the 
people from every walk of life won freedom for the country. 

The Second vision: Developed India 

The next generation (to which I also belong ) has put India strongly 
on the path of economic, agricultural and technological development. But 
India has stood too long in the line of developing nations. Let us, collectively, 
set the second national vision of Developed India. I am confident that it is 
very much possible and can materialise in 15 - 20 years' time. 

Developed status 

What does the developed nation status mean in terms of the common 
man? It means the major transformation of our national economy to make it 
one of the largest economies in the world, where the countrymen live well 
above the poverty line, their education and health is of high standard, national 
security reasonably assured, and the core competence in certain major areas 
gets enhanced significantly so that the production of quality goods, including 
exports, is rising and thereby bringing all-round prosperity for the countrymen. 
What is the common link needed to realise these sub-goals? It is the 
technological strength of the nation, which is the key to reach this developed 
status. 

Build around our strength 

The next question that comes to the mind is, how can it be made 
possible? We have to build and strengthen our national infrastructure in an 
all-round manner, in a big way. Therefore, we should build around our existing 
strengths including the vast pool of talented scientists and technologists and 

219 



our abundant natural resources. The manpower resource should be optimally 
utilised to harness health care, services sectors and engineering goods sectors. 
We should concentrate on development of key areas, namely agriculture 
production, food processing, materials and also on the emerging niche areas 
like computer software, biotechnologies and so on. The common link required 
to bring this transformation is the human resources. Therefore, adequate 
attention needs to be paid to development of special human resource cadre 
in the country to meet these objectives. 

Beyond 2020 

The attainment of a developed status by 2020 does not mean that we 
can then rest on our laurels. It is an endless pursuit of well-being for all our 
people. Our vision of a developed nation integrates this element of time 
within it as well. Only people with many embodied skills and knowledge, 
and with ignited minds can be ready for such a long-term vision. We believe 
that it is possible to develop our people to reach such a state, provided we 
can follow a steady path and make available to the people the benefits of 
change all through their lives. They should see their lives and those of others 
improving in actual terms, and not merely in statistical tables. 

Actions 

This means the vision should become a part of the nation, transcending 
governments - the present and the future. To make this happen, several 
actions are required. An important element of these efforts is to develop 
various endogenous technological strengths. After all, technologies are 
primarily manifestations of human experience and knowledge and thus are 
capable of further creative development, under enabling environments. 

We have often asked ourselves and others why India in its several 
thousand years of history has rarely tried to expand its territories or to assume 
a dominating role. Many of the experts and others with whom we had a 
dialogue referred to some special features of the Indian psyche which could 
partly explain this: greater tolerance, less discipline, the lack of a sense of 
retaliation, more flexibility in accepting outsiders, great adherence to 
hierarchy, and emphasis on personal safety over adventure. Some felt that a 
combination of many of these features has affected our ability to pursue a 
vision tenaciously. 

220 



We believe that as a nation and as a people we need to shed our cynicism 
and initiate concrete action to realise the second vision for the nation. The 
first vision, seeded around 1857, was for India to become politically 
independent; the second one is to become a fully developed nation. Our 
successful action will lead to further action, bringing the vision much closer 
to reality. Perhaps in a decade from now we may even be judged as having 
been cautious and conservative! We will be happy if the action taken proves 
that they could have been still bolder in advocating a faster march towards a 
developed India! 

We had written this chapter before the nuclear tests on 11 May 1998. 
The details of the numbers projected in the tables and figures may change 
but our belief in what we say there remains unchanged. In any case, they are 
meant to be indicative of directions for change. We have seen the reactions 
to the tests within the country in the Indian and foreign media. We have also 
had the benefit of private conversations with many Indians. In all these, I 
observed one striking feature: a number of persons in the fifty-plus bracket 
and especially those who are in powerful positions in government, industry, 
business and academia, seem to lack the will to face problems. They would 
like to be supported by other countries in every action we have to take in the 
country. This is not a good sign after fifty years of an independent India 
which has all along emphasised 'self reliance' . 

We are not advocating xenophobia nor isolation. But all of us have to 
be clear that nobody is going to hold our hands to lead us into the 'developed 
country club'. Nuclear tests are the culmination of efforts to apply nuclear 
technology for national security. When we carried out the tests in May 1998, 
India witnessed issuing of sanctions by a few developed countries. In the 
process, the same countries have purposely collapsed their own doctrine of 
global marketing, global finance systems and global village. Hence India has 
to evolve its own original economic policy, as well as development, business 
and marketing strategies. 

It is not just that the Indian nuclear tests are resented. If tomorrow 
Indian software export achieves a sizable share in the global market, becoming 
third or fourth or fifth in size, we should expect different types of reactions. 
Today, we are a small percentage of the total trade in software or information 
technology. Similarly, if India becomes a large enough exporter of wheat or 

221 



rice or agro-food products to take it into an exclusive club of four or five 
top food grain-exporting nations, various new issues would be raised couched 
in scientific and technical terms ranging from phy to- sanitary specifications 
to our contribution to global warming. Multilateral regimes to these effects 
exist in terms of General Agreement on Trade and Tariffs (GATT) and other 
environment-related multilateral treaties. India cannot afford not to sign these 
treaties, though we could have done our homework a little better during the 
negotiations. We have to face what we have with us. We need to play the 
multilateral game, attract foreign investments, have joint ventures and be an 
active international player. Still, we have to remember that those who aim 
high, have to learn to walk alone too, when required. 

There are economic and social problems in South-East Asia and Japan. 
Each country is trying to tackle them in its own way. There is a variety in the 
approaches. Some may overcome the difficulties and some may not. We 
believe India can still emerge a major developed country and all its people 
can contribute to and share in the prosperity. Our hope lies in the fact that 
even in the older generation, there are a number of persons who are ready to 
face the challenges. Most of the people are proud to see an India that is 
bold. In addition, the younger generation is ready to take action in such a 
complex environment. Many of them have to contend with difficult hierarchial 
structures in the Indian systems, whether in the private or public sector, in 
government or in academia. They are ready to rough it out. That is where 
our hopes lie for the realisation of the Second Vision. 



enhanced 


/lrihA:nst/ 


increased 


harness 


/bArnls/ 


to use a natural source of energy to 
produce power 


optimal 


/BptlmlY 


most favourably 


niche 


/ni:l/ 


comfortable and suitable area 


transcend 


/trGn'send/ 


to go farther than normal human 
experience 


endogenous 


/in'dBdZEnEs/ 


produced from within 


psyche 


fsalklJ 


mind or soul 


hierarchy 


fhaW.rA-.kl/ 


order of importance or power 


tenacious 


/tl'nelLEs/ 


determined, firm 



222 



cynicism 

academia 

initiate 

conservative 

xenophobia 

culmination 

strategy 



/"slnlslzm/ 

/GkE'di:mIE/ 

/I'nILIEty 

/kEn'sE:vEtIv/ 

/zEnEO'fEOblE/ 

/kVlml'nEILn/ 

/strGtEdZl/ 



retaliate /rrtGLIelt/ : to do something unpleasant or harmful 

in return 

an attitude that makes one think people 
are not good 
academic world 

to cause (something) to start to happen 
supporting traditional ways 
an abnormal fear of strangers 
end of something usually happening after 
a long time 
intelligent means to achieve success 

phyto-sanitary /f altEO'sGnltErl/: concerned with hygienic provisions 

Choose the correct synonyms of the underlined words from the options 
given: 

1 . One generation transfers the fruit of its toil to another which then 
takes forward the mission. 

a) sufferings b) hard work c) efforts d) achievement 

2. Let the young minds blossom - full of thoughts of prosperity. 
a) progress b) achievement c) affluence d) novelty 

3. The attainment of a developed status by 2020 does not mean that we 
can then rest on our laurels. 

a) failures b) rewards c) wealth d) appreciation 

4. We believe that as a nation and as a people we need to shed our cynicism 
and initiate concrete action to realise the second vision. 

a) stop b) begin c) instruct d) install 

5. Hence India has to evolve its own economic policy, 
a) design b) develop c) follow d) fear 

Choose the correct antonyms of the underlined words from the options 
given: 

1 . ... and the core competence of certain areas gets enhanced significantly 
and the production of quality goods, including exports is rising and 
thereby all-round prosperity for the countrymen, 
a) increased b) reduced c) expanded d) highlighted 

223 



2. Therefore we should build around our existing strengths including the 
vast pool of talented scientists and technologists; and our abundant 
natural resources, 
a) scarce b) sufficient c) not needed d) boundless 

3 greater tolerance, less discipline, the lack of a sense of retaliation , 

more flexibility in accepting outsiders, great adherence to hierarchy .... 
a) refusal b) defeat c) submission d) attack 

4. It is not just that the Indian nuclear tests are resented . 

a) criticised b) refused c) hailed d) accepted 

5 . Only people with many embodied skills and knowledge and with ignited 
minds can be ready for such a long term vision. 

a) encouraged b) extinguished c) subdued d) ignored 

Comprehension : 
I . Level I 

1 . Why are visions necessary for a nation? 

2. What does a developed nation mean? 

3. 'This is not a good sign ' 

Why does the author make such a remark? 

4. What is a nation without vision compared to? 

5. What is the key to reaching the status of a developed nation? 

6. What type of people can achieve a long term vision? 

7. What is 'xenophobia'? 

8. What does the author mean by 'multilateral game'? 

II. Level II 

1 . What was our 'first vision' ? 

2. What was the second vision conceived for? 

3. What should a nation do to achieve the status of a developed nation? 

4. What were the special features of our nation that affected our ability 
to pursue a vision tenaciously? 

5. Why should India evolve its own original economic policy and adopt 
original strategies? 

6. "Those who aim high, have to learn to walk alone too". Explain 

7. Where, according to the author do our hopes lie for the realisation of 

the second vision? 

224 



III. Answer in a paragraph: 



1. 



2. 



What, according to the author, are the two visions for the development 
of our nation? 



What are the steps suggested by the author to achieve the status of a 
developed nation in the year 2020? 

IV. Write an essay on: 

1. What are the problems that have affected our pursuit to become a 
developed nation? What are the remedies suggested? 

2. Explain the term 'Vision - 2020' . How can we achieve this vision? 
Understanding graphs: 

Look at the graph below and answer the questions: 



Irxdia in Lhc Big League 
1996-2O20 



(Ranks) 



Average Annual 
OOP Growth (%} 



1 

2 
3 
4 

a 

6 

7 

s 

io 
1 1 

12 
13 
14 



A^ftumed growth i~attjs 

7% during 1997— Ol 
7.5% during 2OO2-0G 
S 0% during 2007-11 
9.0% during 2012-20 



15 Li 




For Fourth Position 
rec|uirc:d ^ro wll] I <j It's 
would bg 

7.5% during 1»07— SOOl 
8% during 2002-06 
10% during 20O7— 1 1 
13% during; 2012-20 



1996 



2000 



2010 



2O20 



Courtesy.' 'J '. £C. HhaiimiJt 
■Senior AtiviseT (Zl/ 



GDP - Gross Domestic Product 



225 



1 . What is the position of India in the year 2000? 

2. What would be our position in the year 2020 as per the assumed growth 
rate? 

3. In order to get the fourth position in 2020 what should be our growth 
rate in the last eight years? 

4. What should be the increase in growth rate from the assumed growth 
rate in the last eight years? 

5. What was the change in our position from 1996 to 2000? 

Understanding different registers 
Read the following passages: 

1 . The two main therapeutic goals for persons with paralysis caused by 
neuropathology is to gain as much neuromuscular function as possible 
and to increase their functionality with the neuromuscular control they 
have. 

- New Indian Express 

2 . The bulls have won round one on the bourses. B arring the technology 
sector, which is still down in the dumps due to uncertain business 
climate, stocks all round have seen aggressive buying in the past few 
months. 

- Outlook 

3 . None bigger in terms of occasion than his patient century as Test opener 
in Nottingham earlier in the summer; Sehwag was another in a long 
line of make-shift openers but has no time for the anxieties of the job: 
he would rather fuss over his batting, he says, not his batting position. 

- India Today 

The above three passages have been selected from different journals. 
The first passage is on a subject in Medical Sciences. 
The second passage deals with activities in Stock Market. 
The third passage is about a sports personality. 

The underlined words are generally used in that particular field only. 
One who is not familiar with the field has to refer to the dictionary to know 
the meaning. 

Such words belonging to different fields are known as register. 

226 



'A Register' means the level and style of a piece of writing or speech, 
that is usually appropriate to the situation of field that it is used in' . 

Task: Read the given passages and identify the field they have been 
chosen from: 

1. A further cause for repetition and wastage in the system is the mass 
teaching methods that are being followed and the learning techniques 
centred on memorising bits and pieces of information that are forced 
on the student. 

2. Article 51A 

Fundamental Duties - It shall be the duty of every citizen of India - 

a) to abide by the constitution and respect its ideals and institutions, the 
National Flag and the National Anthem 

D. Vocabulary 

I. Read the following sentences: 

1. The participating nations, apart from the USA, are Japan, the UK, 
France, Germany and the South Asian countries. 

2. Multilateral regimes to these effects exist in terms of General 
Agreement on Trade and Tariffs (GATT) and other environment-related 
multilateral treaties. 

3. The Scientists of ISRQ were hailed by the Prime Minister on the 
successful launch of Agni. 

We are aware that: 

USA means the United States of America 

UK means the United Kingdom 

ISRO means the Indian Space Research Organisation 

USA, UK, ISRO are short forms of long phrases or words. These 
short forms are called abbreviations. We use abbreviations instead of full 
phrases or words. 

They are formed by the first letter of each word as in example 2. 

General Agreement on Trade and Tariffs - GATT 

227 



Here are a few abbreviations: 

1. ATM - Automatic Teller Machines 

2. CVRDE - Combat Vehicle Research and 

Development Establishments 

3. CLRI - Central Leather Research Institute 

4. IIT - Indian Institute of Technology 

Task 1: Find the expansion of the following abbreviations associated 
with computers. 

CPU, UPS, CD, DTP 

Task 2: Find out a few abbreviations and their expansions associated 
with UN (United Nations ). 

When the following abbreviations are used as words they are called 
'acronyms'. 

AVADI - Armed Vehicles and Ammunition Depot of India 
LASER - Light Amplification by Stimulated Emissions of Radiation 
RADAR - Radio Detection And Ranging 

Task : Find out a few more acronyms. You could refer to a dictionary. 

II. Read the following sentences: 

1. The police arrested a young man in a local college for attempting 
suicide . 

2. Ravi is suspected to have kleptomania. 

3. People who have fear of water are said to be suffering from 
hydrophobia. 

The suffixes ' - cide' in suicide, ' - mania' in kleptomania and '- 
phobia' in hydrophobia are used to refer to the nature of an act or a person. 

'-cide' means killing 

Suicide is killing of self. 
Homicide is killing of another person. 
Genocide is killing of people. 

Patricide is killing of father (Patre - father) 

Matricide is killing of mother (Matre - mother) 

228 



Task 1: Can you guess the meaning of the underlined words in the 
sentences given below? 

1. Female infanticide has increased in the recent past. 

2. The court convicted the accused of fratricide. 

'-mania' refers to mental illness of a particular type 

Kleptomania means a strong desire to steal. 
Bibliomania means a craze for books. 

Megalomania means mental illness in which one has exaggerated belief 
in one's importance. 

Task 2: Can you guess the meaning of the underlined words in the 
sentences given below? 

1 . He sets fire to things as he is suffering from pyromania . 

2. Please don't give him too much money. He has squandermania. 

'- phobia' refers to an unknown fear of something. 

hydrophobia - fear of water 
claustrophobia - fear of enclosed space 
acrophobia - fear of heights 

Task 3: Can you guess the meaning of the underlined words in the 
sentences given below? 

1. We are not advocating 'xenophobia' nor isolation. 

2. He is suffering from agarophobia. 

III. Read the advertisement given below: 

'Wanted a hard working , reliable , impressive young graduate with at 
least two years experience in salesmanship for a company in Chennai 



The words hard working, reliable, impressive are terms referring to 
the character of an individual. 

Here are a few sentences that describe an individual's character: 

Mr. Mitra is an optimistic , pleasant and humorous man. 
A pessimist is one who always expects bad things to happen. 
We should be sensitive to what happens around us. 

229 



Be bold and challenge the world. 

You can be ambitious but never greedy . 

Choose the appropriate word for the following from the words in brackets: 

(an introvert, mean, reserved, emotional, a conservative) 

One who is not willing to give or share with others is 

One who has strong feelings such as love or anger is 

One who is more interested in his own thought and does not mix with 

others is 

One who is slow and unwilling to express opinions is 

One who prefers traditional values to a sudden social change 

is 

IV. Phrasal Verbs and Idioms 

Read the given sentences: 

The police cordoned off the area until the bomb was defused. 
The sound of loud music emanated from the building. 
It is time to fight back against drug trafficking. 

In the above sentences the groups of words underlined are called 
phrasal verbs. 

Phrasal verbs are verbs that consist of two or three words. The first 
word is a verb and it is followed by an adverb or a prepositions or both. 
These adverbs or prepositions are sometimes called particles. In some cases 
it is easy to guess the meaning of the phrasal verb. 

e.g. 

I cannot put up with his behaviour any more. - tolerate 

Nobody could quarrel with your conclusion. - oppose 

Do not hang around here. - move with no aim 

They left Iraq before the war broke out . - started suddenly 

Generally when the verbs are transitive (they take an object) the phrasal 
verb is separable and the object can be between the verb and particle or after 
the particle. 

e.g. 

He tore up the letter. 

He tore the letter ujx 

230 



She had to push forward. 

She had to push herself forward. 

When the verbs are intransitive (they have no object) the verb and 
particle cannot be separated. 

I ran into my old friend today. 

We shall eat out tonight. 

I cannot cope with the new syllabus. 

Sometimes Phrasal verbs can be used with Phrases and Clauses. 

e.g. 

I cannot figure out how to do this. 

I am counting on you to help me. 

Task: Here are a few phrasal verbs. Use them in your own sentences. 

1. argue into 6. hunt down 

2. bag off 7. melt away 

3. cave in 8. nose around 

4. engage in 9. pile on 

5. hand down 10. revert to 

Idioms 

Read the given sentences: 

She told him flat that she had no intention of lending him any money. 
If the agreement still holds good we will go ahead with the work. 
Ravi did not do well in his business as he did not know the tricks of the 
trade . 

In the above underlined groups of words the words taken together 
as a group mean something more or different from the individual 
meanings of each word. 

told him flat - expressed opinion directly 

holds good - valid at the time of discussion 

tricks of the trade - the expertise of doing business 

These are called idioms. An idiom can be defined as a group of words 
having a meaning different from the individual meanings of each word in 
the group. 

231 



Idoms are nothing but the special use of language in different situations 
and they encompass the whole gamut of language use with combinations of 
different parts of speech. 

Idioms are generally of three types. 

1 . From irregular structure; meaning clear 

- give someone to understand (give to understand - irregular structure) 

- do someone proud (do proud - irregular structure) 

2. From regular structure; meaning clear 

- cut no ice 

- bring the house down 

3. From irregular structure; meaning unclear 

- be at large (at large - irregular structure) 

- play it by ear (by ear - irregular structure) 

Most of the idioms belong to the second group. 
Here are a few sentences to illustrate their types: 
Adjectives and adverbs 

Business is going from bad to worse , (deteriorate further) 

They always do things in a big way , (on a large scale) 

The government has taken a very hard line (not giving in) against 
illegal quarrying. 

Orders for the new product are coming in thick and fast , 
(in large numbers) 

Nouns 

How can any one make ends meet (manage with the money) with just 
Rs.2000/- a month? 

Your son's behaviour is a matter of concern, (something to worry 
about) 

The name sounds familiar but I can't call her face to mind, (recall 
something from memory; recognise) 

232 



Nouns and adjectives 

My uncle loves to tell us how to play cricket. He is an armchair expert. 
(one who gives advice in an area in which he was not actively 
involved) 

Ravi is our sincere employee. He has had a clean slate (a past record 
without discredit) for over twenty years. 

Idioms and Prepositions 

The policeman went near the damaged car to have a look at close 
quarters, (very near) 

Dr. Jacob is at the helm (in charge) of affairs in this hospital. 

Verbal Idioms 

No one can make a break even (make no profit or loss) in the first year 
ofbusiness. 

Because of the steep rice in prices, people living on pension feel the 
pinch, (feeling unpleasant change in one's standard of living) 

Idiomatic Pairs 

Let us settle the bill for the damage fair and square, (in a fair way) 

I can hear you over phone loud and clear, (very clearly) 

By and by (as time goes by) he will realise that my going to Delhi was 
the right decision. 

Task: Find the meanings of the following idioms from the dictionary 
and use them in sentences of your own. 

1. in short supply 6. the burning question 

2. one thing leads to another 7. the whys and wherefores 

3. once and for all 8. in deep waters 

4. a drop in the ocean 9. draw a blank 

5. a stone's throw 10. a wild goose chase 

E. Study Skills 
Note taking 

It is very essential that everyone should learn how to take notes while 
listening. This is a skill involving listening and writing. 

233 



Task 1: Your teacher will read a passage. As you listen, keep in mind 
the following and complete the notes given below: 

1. Write the topic. 

2. Listen carefully to what is talked about. 

3. One need not write everything that is said. 

4. Articles, prepositions, connectives could be left out. 

5. It is better to write new words and proper nouns, in full. 

6. Words in the active vocabulary could be abbreviated. 

7 . Examples and anecdotes could be remembered after making a reference 
in the appropriate place. 

8. Extract the main points and sub points. 

Electric Power 

- most imp. part of infra structure 

- domestic comfort, , , 

, smooth operation of transport 



vital to 

requirement - multiply because 

Imm. action needed to step up generation of elect. From. 
and 



Task2: Ask a friend of yours to read the passage given below and take 
notes: 

In 326 B.C. the troops of Alexander the Great were nibbling at the 
fringes of the Indian sub-continent, subduing the fragmented kingdoms along 
the valley of the Indus river in present day Pakistan. Alexander's spies had 
told him of the empire of Magadha that lay beyond. They brought figures 
for its fighting forces that spoke for themselves: 200,000 men under arms, 
20,000 cavalry, 2000 chariots, and 3000 elephants. This was a gigantic force, 
and only an enormously wealthy and well-organised state could have afforded 
it. 

Alexander was ready to risk the invasion, But his war- weary, home- 
sick men refused to go on, and he was obliged to turn back towards the west 
without giving battle. After he died in 323 BC his far-flung empire broke 
apart as his generals set themselves up as rival rulers in different provinces. 

- Courtesy Reader's Digest - Vanished civilisations 
234 



F. Grammar 

Read the following dialogue: 

Press Reporter : Sir, could you please tell us the purpose of the meeting? 

Corporation : We have organised this meeting with the shop keepers . 

Official We want to find a solution to the problem of 'sundal' 

boys. They are deprived of basic education. Moreover 
it is essential to convince the employers to let the 
children go off for a while to study. 

The reporter came back to his office and presented a report to his 
editor. 

"A special meeting of the shopkeepers around Marina was organised 
by the corporation officials this morning. When asked, the corporation official 
told the reporter that they had organised that meeting with the shopkeepers 
in order to find out a solution to the problem of Sundal boys. He added that 
they were deprived of basic education and that it was essential to convince 
the employers to let the children go off for a while to study." 

Whenever a report is presented, the conversation which is in direct 
speech is presented in indirect speech. Hence it is called ' Reported Speech'. 

If you go through the passages again you will notice that the following 
changes have taken in reported speech: 

A suitable reporting verb like said, asked, told is used. 

Comma and quotation marks are omitted and a conjunction is used. 

All first person pronouns ( I,we,my,our) are changed according to the 

speaker and second person pronouns (you, your) are changed according 

to the listener. 

If the reporting verb is in the past tense the tenses are changed except 

in a few cases like reporting universal truth or habitual action. 

Modal Auxiliary Verbs are changed to their corresponding past forms . 

When the reporting verb is in the past tense the tense of the verb is in 

direct speech becomes past perfect. 

Words expressing nearness of time and place are changed into words 

of distance, when time and place of reporting are different. They remain 

the same when reported during the same time from same place. 

235 



Let us look at some examples: 
Direct 



Indirect 



1 . She said, "How tall the building is !" She exclaimed that the 

building was very tall. 
He said to me, "Please, switch He requested me to switch off 

off the fan." the fan. 

(Reporting verbs are 'said, told, asked, requested, exclaimed,' etc.) 

2. I said, " Can you repeat it again?" I asked if he could repeat that 

again. 

She asked me whether I had 

the address. 

3. You said to her, "I studied in You told her that you had 

studied in Chennai. 
The doctor asked me when I 
had met him last. 

4. He savs, "I am paving the bill now." He says that he is paying the 

bill now. 



5. 



6. 



7. 



She asked me, "Do you have the 

address?" 

You said to her, "I studied in 

Chennai." 

The doctor asked me, "When did 

you meet me last?" 

He says, "I am paying the bill now." 

(Reporting verb is in present tense) 

He said, "The sun sets in the west." He said that the sun sets in the 

(universal truth) west. 

I said, "I will definitely write to him." I said that I would definitely 

write to him. 
My father said to me, "You must My father told me that I must 

have some rest." have some rest. 

(Generally modals like 'would, should, might,' etc., do not change.) 
I said to my teacher, "I left the I told my teacher that I had 



note book at home" 

We said, "We are attending a 

meeting." 

Sheela said to us, "I visited 

Shimla four years ago." 

Ravi said, "This is the book I lost." 



left my notebook at home. 
We said that we were 
attending a meeting. 
Sheela told us that she had 
visited Shimla four years 
earlier. 

Ravi told that that was the 
book he had lost. 



236 



A few more examples: 

I said, "Where are the boys?" I asked where the boys were. 

She asked me, "Why are you late?" She asked me why I was late. 

(In the case of 'Wh' questions there is no need to have a conjunction 
like 'that'.) 

The teacher said, "Do not bring the book." The teacher asked me not to 

bring the book 

Read the following passage: 

The teacher instructed us to write our names on the top left hand side 
of the answer paper. She advised us not to write anything on the question 
paper and also forbade us from talking in the examination hall. 

The above passage is in reported speech. This can be re-written in 
direct speech. 

Teacher: Write your name on the top left hand side of the answer sheet. 

Do not write anything on the question paper. Do not talk in 
the Examination Hall. 

The underlined words 'instructed', 'advised' and 'forbade' are called 
reporting verbs. 

Read another passage: 

The doctor asked what the problem was and enquired what food I ate 
last. I complained that I had severe stomach ache and added that I had 
taken pizza the previous night.The doctor suspected food poisoning and 
prescribed some medicine. He advised me to take rest for a day and warned 
me against taking food late in the night. 

The reporting verbs in the passage need not appear in the re-written form 
of dialogue. 

Doctor : What is your problem? 

What did you eat last? 
Patient : I have severe stomach ache. 

I took pizza last night. 
Doctor : I think you had food poisoning I will prescribe some medicine. 

Take rest for a day and don't take food late in the night. 
237 



Task: Read the given passages and rewrite them in direct speech. 

1. The scientist was invited to occupy the seat on the stage and was 
introduced to the audience as the greatest scientist of the year. He 
was requested to deliver a speech. The speaker expressed his pleasure 
in presenting a bouquet to him. 

2. The cyclist warned the driver not to move his car till the police arrived. 
The driver pleaded that it was not his fault; however he agreed to pay 
hundred rupees for the repair. The cyclist refused the money and insisted 
that the police be called. 

3 . The striking workers demanded an increase in salary and asked for the 
withdrawal of all cases. They threatened to continue the strike if the 
demands were not met. The manager insisted on them calling off the 
strike and invited them to a discussion. He agreed to listen to their 
demands. 

Here are a few passages in Indirect speech. 

In reported speech the connective, 'that' is used in the case of 
Statements and Exclamatory sentences. 

1. The speaker said, "I am confident that it is very much possible to 
achieve the status of a developed nation in the next twenty years.' 

The speaker said that he was confident that it was very much possible 
to achieve the status of a developed nation in the following twenty 
years. 

2. The tourist said, "What a lovely piece of art it is!" 

The tourist exclaimed that it was a very lovely piece of art. 

The connectives 'if and 'whether' are used in the case of Yes-No 
questions. 

1 . The policeman asked the driver, "Do you have a licence?" 
The policeman asked the driver whether he had a licence. 

2. The boy said, "Can I take my book?" 
The boy asked if he could take his book. 

In 'Wh' questions the question word itself is used as a connective. 

238 



1 . My father said, "Where is your bicycle?" 
My father asked where my bicycle was. 

2. The teacher said, "Why are you late, Ravi?" 
The teacher asked Ravi why he was late. 

Task: Rewrite into reported speech using appropriate connectives: 

1. The student said, "The book is very cheap." 

2. The shop keeper said, "I don't have the soap you want." 

3. Ravi said, "What an easy paper it is !" 

4. We all said, "How hot the day is!" 

5. I asked Kala, "Did you bring my book?" 

6. The boy asked, "Will it rain today?" 

7. My brother said, "How did you arrive at the answer?" 

8. The tourist said, "When will the museum open?" 

Connectives 

Mr. Rehman, a delegate from Pakistan and I got down from the train 
at 'Theydon Bois,' a suburban station near London. Though it was late 
evening, darkness had not set in. It was the end of summer. However the 
cool breeze made the evening enjoyable. We were returning after a meeting 
that was part of our week long training programme. The next day we were 
leaving for our respective countries. 

Rehman was much alike any Indian in his thought and action. Moreover 
he was able to converse in Hindi. Naturally it brought us closer to each 
other. We walked through the streets in silence feeling sorry that to meet 
once again was next to impossible. Suddenly we saw an Indian Restaurant 
and we decided to eat some Indian food. Surprisingly the restaurant was 
empty and we could easily get a table in a corner. We ordered traditional 
North Indian food and continued our conversation. 

The proprietor of the restaurant heard us talking in Hindi and joined 
us in our conversation. Even though he was born and brought up in London, 
he spoke Hindi well. He told us that his father had migrated from Dacca 
before India became independent. The food was excellent and the 
conversation was interesting. Finally it was time for settling the bill and 
there was no indication of the bearer coming with it. In my estimate the cost 

should be around £8.1 took out a £ 10 currency and demanded the bill. 

239 



The proprietor calmly put his hand around our shoulder and said, "We 
all belong to the then Hindustan and you are my brother. I don't accept 
money from my brothers." 

(Based on the true experience of the author.) 

Note the words in italics. They are used to bring in coherence of ideas 
and to get rid of the monotony in the paragraph. They are called connectives . 
The passage being a narration, chronological order of incidents makes the 
passage impressive, the use of connectives brings in coherence of ideas. 

The connectives often used are: 

Furthermore, in addition, moreover, but, so, next, likewise, similarly, 
subsequently, consequently, however, though, not only.... but also, finally, 
on the contrary, for instance, for example, whereas, on the other hand, still, 
as soon as, unless, as if, as though, even though, even if, etc. 

Task: Underline the connectives in the given passage: 

The raft drew beyond the middle of the river. After pointing her head 
right, the boys lay on their oars. The river was not high and there was more 
than a two or three mile current. Consequently the boat went slow. Suddenly 
the boys saw two or three glimmering lights beyond water to their left. 
Probably they were passing by a distant town. Though they wanted to turn 
towards the bank, they did not do so as they were short of time. At last by 
two o' clock in the morning they reached the island. 

G. Writing 

A business letter always differs from a personal letter. The format 
and language are formal, direct and courteous. 

In a business letter: 

1 . Sender's address is written at the top of the letter. Often official letter- 
heads are used. 

2. Ensure that correct address is furnished with telephone numbers and 
fax number if available. It facilitates easy communication. 

3. The data is typed on the right handside below the sender's address. 

4. If it is directed to an official 'Dear Sir / Madam' is used for salutation. 
If the letter is addressed to the company use 'Dear Sirs' . 

5. The subject is mentioned as a short note. 

6. In some letters, the reference number of an earlier communication is 
given for easy reference. 



240 



7. Normally a business letter consists of three paragraphs The first 
paragraph gives a brief introduction of the sender and the reason or 
purpose of writing the letter. The second paragraph conveys the actual 
requirement or message in brief but without mincing words. It should 
be clear and provide all details. The third paragraph should be precise 
and effective so that it makes the reader act upon it. 

8. Subscription: If the letter is addressed to an individual by name 'Yours 
sincerely', is the appropriate form. Otherwise 'Yours truly' or 'Yours 
faithfully' is used. 

9. In formal business letters, the sender affixes full signature and states 
his designation below it. 

10. If the requirement is more in number and the space in the body of the 
letter is inadequate, a reference could be made and a separate list of 
items could be enclosed. 

Look at the following letter. 



MERCURY SPORTS CLUB 

45 M.G. Road, Adayar, Chennai - 20 PH : 27462816 

7 th March 2003 
To, 

M / S Radiant Sports Suppliers, 
216, Anna Salai 
Chennai - 600002 

Dear Sirs, 

Sub: Supply of sports materials - quotation called for. 

We are a leading sports club in Chennai and we need the following 
items for immediate purchase. 

We request you to send your quotation of prices for the items within a 
week of receipt of this letter. Also mention the brand and ensure that they are of 
ISI standard. 

1 . Volley ball (practice) - 1 2 

2. Volley ball (Tournament) - 8 

3. Volley ball net (practice) - 4 

4. Volley ball net (Nylon) - 2 

5. Basketball -10 

We look forward to your immediate reply. 

Yours faithfully, 

K.VARADHAN 

Secretary - Mercury Sports Club 

241 



Taskl: Send a suitable reply to the above letter. 



Task!: You are the PRO of a big company. You had already received 
the catalogue and brochures of solar heaters and solar lamps. 
Write a letter to the company placing a bulk order at a 
discounted price. 

Task3: Write a letter to the authorities of the Metro Transport System 
asking them to provide two buses for taking your students on a 
visit to the museum. You will sign as the Adminstrative Officer 
of the school. 

H. Occupational Competency: 

(i) CROSS BORDER TERRORISM (ii) CROSS BORDER HUMANISM 




(i) terrorism - across borders - 
violence - bomb blasts - blood shed 
- the evil that man does to man - 
need for peace, non-violence, 
tolerance 

(ii) Noor Fatima - 2Vi year old - 
Pakistani girl - came to India with 
parents - on the first trip - Lahore- 
Delhi bus service - relaunched on 
July 1 1 th - after a suspension of 1 8 
months - underwent successful 
open heart surgery - private 
hospital - Bangalore, South India 




242 



Task : Look at the given pictures carefully. Read the captions and 
hints, and write a composition based on it. 

I. Strategic Competency 

Proficiency in English is an added advantage to anyone who wants to 
prosper in life. With a fair proficiency in English one can go places in life. 
Can we afford the luxury of ignoring English? 

A : A visiting professor B : Sriram, a business man 

A : Hello, Sriram. How was your visit to the States? 

B : Well, it was a rewarding experience . I was rather stunned by the 

regard we command there. I think we Indians make a mark wherever 

we go. 
A : You're right. Our communication skill is in fact a great asset. The 

foreigners are able to follow our accent easily. This helps in 

improving our relationship with them. 
B : I was of the opinion that we Indians give undue importance to 

English. 

But my visit abroad has changed my opinion. 
A : Yes, Sriram. English as you realise now is playing a vital role in 

linking not only the different states of India but also making the 

world a global village. It is a very powerful tool of communication. 
B : I do understand. But my question is how do countries like Japan 

and China manage without English? Yet they are developing faster 

than us. 
A : No doubt, they are nations that have drawn our attention. I now 

travel to many countries as a visiting professor in English. You 

will be overjoyed and proud to know the respect they have for me 

- 1 mean for my English. I feel satisfied that I've done my country 

proud in a small way. 
B : I am indeed happy to hear that. Would you then say that we hereafter 

cannot manage without English? 
A : It's not the question of managing. If you want your hard work and 

dedication to be recognised then you shouldn't shun this universal 

language. All the countries now have fully realised the value of 

this important language and they look upto us for inspiration and 

guidance. 

243 



B : I see. That's interesting! 

A : Not only that. You know that English enjoys the status of being the 

second official language in India. You need English to keep pace 
with the rapid advancements and research in science and technology. 
Our software engineers outsmart their counter parts wherever they 
go, only because of their excellent communication skills. We are in 
great demand everywhere. 

B : I have come to understand the value of English now. Thank you 

for enlightening me. 

Task: Form groups and discuss the importance of learning English. 

J. Creative Competency 

The following is an article in the sports column of a newspaper: 

St. Xavier's wins 

TIRUNELVELI, Nov. 6. The throw ball match between St.Xavier's and 
BSN proved to be an exciting one. St.Xavier's created terror in the minds 
of their opponents right at the start. BSN struggled, unable to cope with 
their strong opponents But it looked that things changed for both the teams 
when they changed sides, with St.Xavier's winning the first match. Lady 
luck smiled upon BSN now. They accumulated points quickly only to prove 
that they were no weak opponents. The crucial third match was started after 
a short break. It gave enough time for both the teams to work out their 
winning strategies. The captains of both the teams did prove their worth as 
leaders. The match became fierce and highly competitive when both too 
thrilling and kept everyone on tenterhooks. But it was St. Xavier's which 
won the match. And of course the trophy was theirs ! 

Task: Complete the following articles to be published in the sports 
column of a newspaper choosing the words given in brackets: 

(i) Kanetkar wins title 

NEW DELHI, July 14. India's Nikhil Kanetkar won his 

international title when he Andreas Wolk of Germany to 

the Toulose Open badminton in Southern France. Kanetkar 

the German 15-9, 15-11 in just 29 minutes to lift the Grade 'A 

title on Sunday. 

(lift, tournament, maiden, defeated, thrashed) 
244 



(ii) Pon N Krithika wins in style 

KOZHIKODE, Mar. 17. Twelve- year- old Pon N Kirithika won the 31st 

National women's 'A' chess in great style. She did it with a 

to spare, and with an astonishing 15.5 from 16 rounds. 

She defeated the champion Rajashree in the round. 

"This has been an amazing ," said a delighted Krithika. 

(defending, championship, points, streak, round, penultimate) 

Self-evaluation 

I. Change the following sentences into Indirect Speech: 

1. The teacher said to the student, "You have done well in the 
examination." 

2. The librarian said to the student, "When will you return the book?" 

3. The policeman said to the driver, "Do you have a license?" 

4. The tourist said, "What a beautiful monument it is!" 

5 . The clerk said to the manager, "Please permit me to use the computer." 

6. The master said to the servant, "Clean the front room." 

7. The stranger said to me, "Could you please show me the way to the 
bus stop?" 

//. Coin suitable words for the given meanings using suitable suffices 
like '- phobia, ' '-cide, ' and '-mania. ' 

Something used to kill insects 
Killing a member of a royal family 
Fear of using English 
A strong desire for alcoholic drinks 



245 



POEM 

O CAPTAIN! MY CAPTAIN! 

O Captain! My Captain! Our fearful trip is done, 
The ship has weather 'd every rack, the prize we sought is won, 
The port is near, the bells I hear, the people all exulting, 
While follow eyes the steady keel, the vessel grim and daring; 
But O heart! heart! heart! 
O the bleeding drops o red! 
Where on the deck my Captain lies, 
Fallen cold and dead. 

O Captain! My Captain! Rise up and hear the bells; 
Rise up - for you the flag is flung - for you the bugle trills, 
For you bouquets and ribbon'd wreaths - for you the shores crowding, 
For you they call, the swaying mass, their eager faces turning; 
Here, Captain! dear father! 
This arm beneath your head! 
It is some dream that on the deck 
You've fallen cold and dead. 

My Captain does not answer, his lips are pale and still, 
My father does not feel my arm, he has no pulse nor will; 
The ship is anchor'd safe and sound, its voyage closed and done, 
From fearful trip the victor ship comes in with object won; 
Exult, O shores ! and ring, O bells ! 
But I, with mournful tread, 
Walk the deck my Captain lies, 
Fallen cold and dead. 

- Walt Whitman 

Walt Whitman was born in Long Island, in the United States of America 
in 1819. He started his career as an office hoy in a law office in Brooklyn at 
the age of eleven and then became a typesetter's apprentice in a number of 
print shops. He took to teaching for some time and started his own newspaper, 

246 



'the Long Islands '. During 1850-1855 hefocussed on his own work, ' Leaves 
of Grass ' and continued to write. He died at the age of 72. 

The poem, 'O Captain! My Captain ' was published in 1 865 and widely 
anthologised during his life time. This poem is a rare example of his use of 
rhymed, rhythmically regular verse, which serves to create a sombre yet 
exalted effect. Whitman had envisioned Abraham Lincoln as an archangel 
Captain and he wrote this poem as a dirge for the death of Abraham Lincoln. 

The first line of the poem serves to begin the controlling metaphor 
upon which the rest of the poem is built. In this poem, 'Captain ' is a substitute 
of Abraham Lincoln, and the ship is the United States of America. 'The 
fearful trip ' is the Civil War. The Speaker celebrates the end of the civil war 
but continues to mourn the fallen hero. 

Glossary and notes 

bleeding drops of red : captain's bleeding wound and the speaker's 

wounded heart 

bells : bells rung in celebration of victory (they also 

symbolise funeral bells) 

weathered : came safely through 

dear father : Lincoln is exalted to the position of father of the 

post- slavery nation 

show jubilation (over victory) 

walk softly 

produce a quavering or warbling sound 



exult 

tread 

trill 

Comprehension questions 



1 . Why is the vessel grim and daring? 

2. What has happened to the Captain? 

3. How is the dead Captain received? 

4. What do the following phrases mean? 

a) 'Ship is anchored safe and sound' 

b) 'Voyage closed and done' 

c) 'Prize we sought is won' 

247 



5. How are the last eight lines different from the previous lines? 

6. Explain the metaphors in the poem. 

Appreciation questions: 

1 . State symbolically the arrangement of syllables, stressed and unstressed 
in each line. 

2. Bring out the significance of the first four long lines and the next four 
lines short in each stanza. 

3. How are emotions expressed in the shorter lines of each stanza? 

4. What does a leader leave for his followers? 
Parallel reading 

Read the given poem that advocates patriotic fervour. 

THE SOLDIER 

If I should die, think only this of me: 

That there's some corner of a foreign field 
That is for ever England. There shall be 

In that rich earth a richer dust concealed; 
A dust whom England bore, shaped, made aware, 

Gave, once her flowers to love, her ways to roam, 
A body of England's, breathing English air, 

Washed by the rivers, blost by suns of home. 

And think, this heart, all evil shed away, 
A pulse in the eternal mind, no less 

Gives somewhere back the thoughts by England given; 
Her sights and sounds; dreams happy as her day; 
And laughter, learnt of friends; and gentleness, 
In hearts at peace, under an English heaven. 

- Rupert Brooke 



248 



APPENDIX 

UNIT - 1 

A. Listening 

I. & II. Twinkle, 'twinkle, 'little 'star 

'How I 'wonder 'what you 'are! 
Tiger! Tiger! 'burning 'bright 
In the 'forests 'of the 'night 

III. Turn ti 'turn ti 'turn ti 'turn 

Twinkle, 'twinkle, 'little 'star 
Turn ti 'turn ti 'turn ti 'turn 
Tiger! Tiger! 'burning 'bright 

IV. 1. The 'moon ro'tates 'round the 'earth. 

2. 'Man 'back from 'space. 

3 . The 'spaceship is 'now in 'orbit. 

4. They left 'footprints on the 'moon. 

5 . 'Space is 'all a'round us. 

Task: 

1 . The 'sun 'rises in the 'east. 

2. 'Man' s 'footprints on the 'moon. 

3. 'Everest 'conquered. 

4 . He 'promised to 'come . 

5. 'Spaceship launched. 

6 . 'Countdown be'gins . 

7. The 'capsule 'burnt. 

8 . 'When the 'blazing 'sun is 'gone. 

9. 'Comet's 'course 'tracked. 

10. He's a 'cosmonaut. 

UNIT - II 

A. Listening 
I. 

Rani : Hi, Radha ! Have you submitted your application form? 

Radha : Not yet. I'll do it tomorrow. 



Task 2: 



Rani : Why? 

Radha : I couldn' t make photocopies of my certificates because there 

was no electricity in that area. 
Rani : Okay, what group are you planning to choose? 

Radha : I'll be choosing mathematics and biology. 

Rani : Why both? 

Radha : I want to keep my 'options open. I want to become either an 

electrical or elec'tronic engineer or a doctor. 
Rani : That's a ter'rific idea ! V ve decided to choose the second group. 

Radha : Why the second group? I thought you would choose the first 

group! 
Rani : I'm terribly scared of mathematics and also zo'ology. 

Radha : Strange ! Your grandfather was a famous mathema'tician. 

Rani : What about Amudha? She was interested in history and 

ge'ography. 
Radha : I heard that she is planning to join the vocational group . 

Rani : Why? 

Radha : She told me that she wants to participate in many basketball 

tournaments. 

Hence that choice. 
Rani : Okay, we'll meet tomorrow. 

Radha : Yes , tomorrow is the last day to sub'mit the application form. 



application 
elec'tricity 
ge'ography 
zo'ology 



sub'mit 
ter'rific 
elec'tronic 
mathema'tician 



participate 
'option 
electrical 
bi'ology 



Task 3: 



ration rotation 

technology morality 

admission retaliate 

musical specific 

//. Functional Stress 

Task 1: 



physician 
essential 
ability 
orthography 



'absent 
con'trast 



noun 
verb 



ab'sent 
'contrast 



verb 
noun 



di'gest 


verb 


'digest 


noun 


'export 


noun 


ex'port 


verb 


'import 


noun 


import 


verb 


con'tent 


verb 


'content 


noun 


per'mit 


verb 


'permit 


noun 


'produce 


noun 


pro'duce 


verb 


2: 









1 . The headmaster is not satisfied with the 'conduct of some of the hostelers. 
If they don't con'duct themselves properly, they will be dismissed from 
the hostel. 

2. The youth should object to the practice of showing the woman as an 
'object of pleasure in films. 

3 . Show me your 'record. I want to re'cord it. 

UNIT - III 

A. Listening 

I. This is a radio announcement: 
Farmers caught in a vicious circle 

Barnataka, Sept. 7 

While some farmers in the Kalveri Bajun districts are committing suicide, 
unable to repay loans, sops extended by banks at the behest of the RBI with 

regard to settlement of loans have evoked little response. 

J* 

The RBI scheme, sources said, was in addition to the programmes 
"-* 
implemented by banks. They pointed out that the banks were implementing 

schemes to help those who were not wilful defaulters. One of the reasons cited 

for farmers remaining cool to the schemes was that they were unable to pay even 

the interest part of their loan. Besides the large institutional credit, farmers have 

-^ 
also borrowed from moneylenders. Drought for two years in a row has reduced 

-^ 
income from farmlands while the outstanding amount has been increasing sharply. 

//. Task 1: 

Young Villager (to Bharath) : My mother wants to buy two red tractors. 



Young Villager (to Siddu) : My mother wants to buy two red tractors . 
Young Villager (to Renu) : My mother wants to buy two red tractors . 
Task 2: 

1. a) I'm sorry, but I can't help you. 
b) I'm sorry, but I can't help you . 

2. a) He doesn't really like brinjals. 
b) He doesn't really like brinjals . 

3 . a) I thought Economics was a boring subject, 
b) I thought Economics was a boring subject. 

4. a) I only said to the child, "You should get up earlier", 
b) I only said to the child, "You should get up earlier". 

5 . a) I' 11 never pas s in Hindi , 
b) FU never pass in Hindi. 

6 . a) Some children have broken the window , 
b) Some children have broken the window. 

7 . a) At least you could try. 
b) At least you could try. 

Task 3: 

' 'Shame on the parents who would supervise the spending of pocket money ! 

It is ours by sacred right. It is our first clear step towards the dignity of adulthood. 

With it we gain the right not only to stand in front of the enticing shop window but 

*-* -* 

also to enter and translate our judgement into action. Anxious mothers say, "I 

-* J* 

shouldn't buy that if I were you", or, "You've already got one of these at home", 

-* -* -^ "-* 

or, "What! More sweets! You'll be sick." No more interference! Let us face our 

own responsibilities . If we are ever to learn how to spend Rs. 50/- we must learn 

by ourselves to squander a rupee in all the riotous splendour of inexperience. 

We learn by making mistakes. So, our parents owe this much to our dawning 

manhood and womanhood." 



UNIT IV 

A. Listening 

"Mirror, mirror, on the wall; tell me who's the fairest of all?" The vain and 
wicked Queen asked the mirror. "Snow-white!" answered the mirror. 

The mirror is that which reflects our own image. Dreams too mirror our 
image, for, they reveal what worries us in the present or our deep personal anxieties 
from the past. Dreams reflect our innermost feelings . 

Dreams can be fun. Dreams can be nightmarish. Sometimes dreams are 
exciting. Dreams predict the future too. There are occasions when dreams are a 
fulfilment of one's innermost desires. 

At times dreams prove a perfect escape from the harsh realities of the 
world. 

But, are dreams real? 

A little boy once tried in vain to collect the beautiful colours of the rainbow 
in his water-colour box, from the reflection of the rainbow on a puddle of rain 
water. His father smiled and said, "The colours of the rainbow cannot be collected 
in any bucket or box. The raindrops shine in the splendour of the rainbow only 
for a few moments. This, my son, happens with all the things of this world; we 
imagine that they are important, but in truth they are only a vague appearance." 

Yes, like the reflection of the rainbow, dreams too are unreal and 
momentary. A dream world passes away fleetingly. Dreams are only a mirage, 
an illusion, appearing to be what they really aren't. 

Task: 

"Was it a vision or a waking dream? do I wake or sleep?" asked 

Keats in his 'Ode to a Nightingale' . 

Do you have dreams or visions? Can you make your dreams come true? 
Is it possible to crystallise your dreams? Is it possible to turn your dreams into 
reality? Can you turn the abstract into concrete? If you have visions for the future, 
you can. 

Didn't Martin Luther King make it possible? What about Churchill, who 
said, "We shall fight on the beaches, we shall fight on the landing grounds, we 



shall fight in the fields and in the streets, we shall fight in the hills; we shall never 
surrender"? And how could we forget Nehru who made his tryst with destiny? 
What about Gandhi's vision of a free India? 

The great achievers like Tenzing Norgay and Neil Armstrong had their 
own dreams. Their dreams were their aspirations. With single-minded dedication 
and zeal they were able to fulfil their dreams. 

Alexander the Great dreamt of an empire. But, would he have achieved it, 
if he had built mere castles in the air? Vasco da Gama and Christopher Columbus 
dreamt of exploring hitherto untrodden territory. Would they have made their 
great discoveries, if they had sat brooding on the shores? Mother Teresa had a 
vision of working among the destitute in Calcutta. Would she have fulfilled it, if 
she had led a cloistered life in far-off Yugoslavia? 

Bill Gates dreamt of a Microsoft empire, P. T Usha dreamt of sprinting to 
victory and Kalpana Chawla dreamt of reaching the stars. How were they all 
able to achieve it? 

Dreams are what you hope for; reality is what you plan for. Unless you 
plan and forge ahead, your dreams will remain dreams . They will never become 
realities. 

The American Civil Rights leader, Jesse Jackson, said, "We've removed 
the ceiling above our dreams. There are no more impossible dreams". Yes, the 
sky alone could be the limit for those who strive towards making their dreams 
come true. 

UNIT - V 

A. Listening: 

Task 1 : 

Presenter : This is All Bharat Radio. Good morning to you listeners ! 

And greetings on this 56 th independence day. We now 
present to you a panel discussion on "Freedom". Our 
panelists are the Honourable Minister Thamizhselvan, our 
respected Vice Chancellor Thiru. Ram Kumar and the 
famous newspaper editor Ms.Sangeetha. I invite the 
Honourable Minister to express his views first. 

Minister : Friends, a very Good morning to all of you. Freedom for 

me is freedom from foreign rule. We achieved it 56 years 
ago. I am proud to be a free Indian. Jai Hind! 



Vice Chancellor 



Editor 



Minister 



Vice Chancellor 



Editor 



Minister 

Presenter 
Task 2: 



Dear listeners, in my opinion, freedom means freedom to 
learn what you like. I am sad to say that India has not 
achieved this freedom. Let us all work towards it. 
My dear fellow Indians I'm sure you will agree with me 
when I say that freedom of the press is the real freedom. I 
am happy to say that we Indians have a free press. 
I feel that our top priority should be economic freedom. 
Unless rural poverty is wiped out and the majority of people 
are assured of minimum standards of living, freedom will 
not mean anything. 

I agree with the Honourable Minister in toto. But I would 
like to add that complete freedom is something not 
practicable. One man's freedom is restrained by the need 
to grant freedom to others. A certain amount of control by 
the government is unavoidable. 

I am afraid, I can't agree with my esteemed friend. 
Freedom is our birthright. Any effort by established 
governments to encroach upon our freedom should be 
resisted by the people. Freedom is essential if democracy 
is understood as government by discussion in which 
everyone participates . 

I am with you in defending freedom. We are happy that 
the architects of our constitution have taken great care to 
guarantee the fundamental rights to every citizen of India. 
Thank you very much for being with us and au revoir! 



Good evening. This is CTV giving you the news. Here are the headlines. 

The Railway minister resigns. The CM. has gone to Delhi to attend the 
Planning Commission meeting. The Indian Cricket team has qualified for the 
semifinals in World cup. Ms. Sahara Sudhir from India crowned Ms. World. 
And the weather- Heavy rains and strong winds lash coastal Tamilnadu. 

UNIT - VI 



A. Listening 

Reporter 

Reddy 

Joe 



Good morning Mr.Reddy ! Nice to have you with us. 
Good morning Joe. 

We heard that you are the officer in charge of tribal development. 
Could you tell us something about what you do? 



Reddy : Well ! I am in charge of tribal development in a certain remote 

area of Andhra Pradesh, a fast developing state in India. I act as 
a liaison between the state government and the tribals. I educate 
them and help them join the main stream. 

Joe : Are they very much backward? 

Reddy : Of course ! At the same time I learnt a few things from them 

which a civilised man doesn't know. 

Joe : Interesting ! Could you tell us something about this experience? 

Reddy : With pleasure. During summer, in certain areas we experience 

water scarcity. The water in ponds or open wells becomes turbid. 
It is rather unfit for drinking. The tribal people collect the gums 
and small pieces of wood from a particular tree and drop them 
in the turbid water. Within an hour the water becomes clear and 
potable. 

Joe : Have you identified the tree? 

Reddy : Not yet. They are still reluctant to reveal the secret ! 

Joe : What did you do then? 

Reddy : I collected the few pieces of wood that were used and consulted 

the scientists in the Institute for Botanical Research. They 
experimented on them and found that the particular piece of wood 
can absorb any metal or mineral in water. 

Joe : Don' t you think it is a great discovery? 

Reddy : Indeed it is ! I am proud to say that the tribals of our country have 

great knowledge of herbal medicines and plants. 

Joe : How do you think it will help your country? 

Reddy : If we could identify the tree and market the gum and pieces of 

wood in large scale, the scarcity of drinking water will get reduced. 
Secondly we could even export it to other countries. 

Joe : Wish you good luck Mr.Reddy ! Thank You . 

E. Study skills 

Electric Power: This is the most important part of the infrastructure. Besides 
assuring people of domestic comfort, it is imperative for increasing food production 
and to support a whole host of manufacturing operations, in the engineering, 
chemical and material processing industries as well as in smooth operations of 
the entire transport, communication and information sector, all of which are vital 
to economic growth and employment. The requirement of electric power will 
only multiply because of the growth in the demand from various sectors. Immediate 
action is needed to greatly step up the generation of electricity from coal, gas, 
hydro and nuclear sources. 



SUPPLEMENTARY READER 



HIGHER SECONDARY - FIRST YEAR 
PART II - ENGLISH 



Untouchability is a sin 
Untouchability is a crime 
Untouchability is inhuman 




TAMILNADU 

TEXTBOOK CORPORATION 

College Road, Chennai - 600 006. 



© Government of Tamilnadu 
First Edition -2004 

Reprint - 2005 

Chairperson 

Dr. S. SWAMINATHAPILLAI 

Former Director 

School of Distance Education 

Bharathiar University 

Coimbatore 



Overall Reviewer 

Thiru S.GOMATHINATHAN 

Special Officer, ELT / Reader, 

D.T.E.RT. (Retired), 

W- 5 (Old 302), 19 th Street, 

Annanagar Western Extension, 

Chennai-600101. 



Dr. V. Saraswathi 

Former Professor of English 
University of Madras 
Chennai. 



Reviewers 

Dr. Noor Jehan Kother Adam 

Reader in English 

Ethiraj College for Women 

Chennai. 

Authors 



Ms. Priscilla Josephine Sarah S. 

Researcher in ELT 

W-5 (Old 302), 19th Street, 

Anna Nagar Western Extension, 

Chennai. 



Ms. Nirmala Jairaj 

Language Consultant 

5/36, 1 3 th Avenue,Harrington Road. 

Chetpet, Chennai. 



Dr. A. Joseph Dorairaj 

Reader in English 
Gandhigram Rural University 
Gandhigram 
Dindugul District. 



Price : Rs. 8.50 



Thiru. S. Muthukrishnan 

Principal 

Jaigopal Garodia Vivekananda Vidyalaya 
Matriculation Higher Secondary School 
Annanagar, Chennai. 

Thiru. K.V. Renganathan 

Former Principal 

Govt. Muslim Teachers' Training Institute 
Triplicane, Chennai. 



This book has been prepared by The Directorate of 
School Education on behalf of the Government of Tamilnadu. 



This book has been printed on 60 GS.M. paper. 



Printed by Web Offset at : 

Sri Murugan Offset Printers, Sivakasi - 626 123. 



PREFACE 

Extensive reading has become the need of the hour. This 
Supplementary Reader is intended to develop reading skills. Basic skills 
have been practised in the English Reader. Further development is taken 
care of in this book. Besides global and local comprehension of a story the 
student should be able to analyse the events, the characteristics of the persons 
in each story, the hints of important ideas and their development into 
continuous writing. 

Questions given under 'For Readers' Practice' contribute to the 
understanding of the story. Questions under 'Self Evaluation' enable them 
to practise answering questions in the annual examination. 

Besides two short stories written by tamil writers Pudumaipithan and 
Sundara Ramaswamy, one by the Indian Nobel Laureate Rabindranath 
Tagore, there are three other stories by English writers, viz., Guy de 
Maupassant, O.Henry and James Herriot. The overall effect of reading these 
stories will be a regional, national and international outlook on human life 
and culture. 

Reading skills developed in the English Reader and strengthened by 
this Supplementary Reader should enable the students to read any other 
writing in the media and the book world. Extensive reading is an 
accomplishment of a good user of any language. Imaginative thinking, 
analytical process and synthetic approach should stand them in good stead 
in future studies and career. 

It is hope that teachers will use this strictly as an extensive reader and 
not as a text to be taught in classrooms. Home reading, class discussion and 
internal assessment are recommended for teaching this book. All the strategic 
competencies developed in the Reader will be of great help in managing 
the expansion of general knowledge through this book 



m 



CONTENTS 



Page No. 



HOLIDAY 1 

Rabindranath Tagore 

THE NECKLACE 10 

Guy de Maupassant 

THE GIFT OF THE MAGI 2 1 

O.Henry 

REFLOWERING 29 

Sundara Ramaswamy 

EVERY LIVING THING 41 

James Herriot 

KAANCHANAI 49 

Pudumaippittan 



IV 



HOLIDAY 

Rabindranath Tagore 

Phatik Chakrabarti, leader of the gang, suddenly had a bright idea. Lying 
by the river was a huge sal-tree log, just waiting to be made into a mast. Everyone 
must help to roll it along ! Without giving a thought to the surprise, annoyance and 
inconvenience that would be caused to the person who needed the log for timber, 
all the boys fell in with this suggestion. They got down to the task with a will; but 
just then Phatik's younger brother Makhanlal came and solemnly sat on the log. 
The boys were rather non-plussed by his haughty, dismissive attitude. 

One of them went up to him and nervously tried to push him off, but he 
refused to budge. Wise beyond his years, he continued to ponder the vanity of all 
childish games. 

'You'll pay for this ', said Phatik, brandishing his fist. 'Clearoff.' 

But Makhanlal merely adjusted his perch and settled down even more 
immovably on the log. 

In this kind of situation, Phatik ought to have preserved his supremacy 
over the other boys by delivering immediately a hearty slap on his wayward 
brother's cheek-but he didn't dare. Instead he assumed a manner implying that 
he could, had he so wished, have meted out this customary punishment, but he 
wasn't going to, because a more amusing idea had occurred to him. Why not, he 
proposed, roll the log over with Makhanlal on it? 

Makhan at first saw glory in this; he did not think (nor did anyone else) that 
like other worldly glories it might carry dangers. The boys rolled up their sleeves 
and began to push - 'Heave ho ! Heave ho ! Over we go! 'With one spin of the 
log, Makhan's solemnity, glory and wisdom crashed to the ground. 

The other boys were delighted at such an unexpectedly quick outcome, 
but Phatik was rather embarrassed. Makhan immediately jumped up and 



threw himself on to him, hitting him with blind rage and scratching his 
nose and cheeks. Then he made his way home tearfully. 

The game having been spoilt, Phatik pulled up a few reeds, and 
climbing on to the prow of a half-sunk boat sat quietly chewing them. A 
boat-not a local one-came up to the mooring-place. A middle-aged 
gentleman with a black moustache but grey hair stepped ashore. 'Where is 
the Chakravartis 'house? he asked the boy. 

'Over there,' replied Phatik, still chewing the reed-stalks. But no one 
would have been able to understand which direction to take. 

'Where?' asked the gentleman again. 

'Don't know,'said Phatik, and he carried on as before, sucking juice 
from the stalks. The gentleman had to ask others to help him find the house. 

Suddenly Bagha Bagdi (a servant) appeared and said, ' Phatik - dada, 
Mother's calling you.' 

'Shan't go, 'said Phatik. 

He struggled and kicked helplessly as Bagha picked him up bodily 
and carried him home. His mother shouted furiously when she saw him: 
'You' ve beaten up Makhan again ! ' 

'I didn' t beat him up . ' 

'How dare you lie to me?' 

'I did not beat him up. Ask him.' 

When Makhan was questioned he stuck to his earlier accusation, 
saying, 'He di d beat me up.' Phatik could not stand this any more. He charged 
at Makhan and thumped him hard, shouting, 'So who's lying now?' His 
mother, taking Makhan's part, rushed and slapped Phatik's back several 
times heavily. He pushed her away. 'So you'd lay hands on your own 
mother?' she screamed. 

At that moment the black-grey gentleman entered the house and said, 
'What's going on here?' 

'Dada!' said Phatik's mother, overwhelmed with surprise and joy. 
'When did you come?' She bent down and took the dust of his feet. 



Many years previously her elder brother had gone to the west of India 
to work, and in the meantime she had had two children; they had grown, 
her husband had died-but all this time she had never seen her brother. At 
long last Bishvambhar Babu had returned home, and had now come to see 
his sister. 

There were celebrations for several days. At length, a couple of days 
before his departure, Bishvambhar questioned his sister about the schooling 
and progress of her two sons. In reply, he was given a description of Phatik's 
uncontrollable wildness and inattention to study; while Makhan, by contrast, 
was perfectly behaved and a model student. 'Phatik drives me mad,' she 
said. 

Bishvambhar then proposed that he take Phatik to Calcutta, keep him 
with him and supervise his education. The widow easily agreed to this. 
'Well, Phatik,' he asked the boy, 'how would you like to go to Calcutta with 
your uncle?' 'I'd love to,' said Phatik, jumping up and down. 

His mother did not object to seeing her son off, because she always 
lived in dread that Makhan might be pushed into the river by him or might 
split his head open in some terrible accident; but she was a little cast down 
by the eagerness with which Phatik seized the idea of going. He pestered 
his uncle with 'When are we going? When are we going?' - and couldn't 
sleep at night for excitement. 

When at last the day to leave came, he was moved to a joyous display 
of generosity. He bestowed on Makhan his fishing-rod, kite and reel, with 
permanent right of inheritance. 

When he arrived at his uncle's house in Calcutta, he first had to be 
introduced to his aunt. I cannot say she was over-pleased at this unnecessary 
addition to her family. She was used to looking after her house and three 
children as they were, and suddenly to loose into their midst an unknown, 
uneducated country boy would probably be most disruptive. If only 
Bishvambhar had insight commensurate with his years ! Moreover, there is 
no greater nuisance in the world than a boy of thirteen or fourteen. There is 
no beauty in him, and he does nothing useful either. He arouses no affection; 
nor is his company welcome. If he speaks modestly he sounds false; if he 
speaks sense he sounds arrogant; if he speaks at all he is felt to be intrusive. 
He suddenly shoots up in height so that his clothes no longer fit him-which 

3 



is an ugly affront to other people. His childish grace and sweetness of 
voice suddenly disappear, and people find it impossible not to blame 
him for this. Many faults can be forgiven in a child or a young man, but 
at this age even natural and unavoidable faults are felt to be unbearable. 

He himself is fully aware that he does not fit properly into the world; 
so he is perpetually ashamed of his existence and seeks forgiveness for 
it. Yet this is the age at which a rather greater longing for affection 
develops in him. If he gets at this time love and companionship from 
some sympathetic person, he will do anything in return. But no one dares 
show affection, in case others condemn this as pampering. So he looks 
and behaves like a stray street-dog. 

To leave home and mother and go to a strange place is hell for a 
boy of this age. To live with loveless indifference all around is like walking 
on thorns. This is the age when normally a conception forms of women 
as wonderful, heavenly creatures; to be cold- shouldered by them is 
terribly hard to bear. It was therefore especially painful to Phatik that 
his aunt saw him as an evil star. If she happened to ask him to do a job 
for her and- meaning well-he did more than was strictly necessary, his 
aunt would stamp on his enthusiasm, saying, 'That's quite enough, quite 
enough. I don't want you meddling any more. Go and get on with your 
own work. Do some studying.' His aunt's excessive concern for his 
mental improvement would then seem terribly cruel and unjust. 

He so lacked love in this household, and it seemed he could breathe 
freely nowhere. Stuck behind its walls, he thought constantly of his home 
village. The fields where he would let his 'monster-kite' fly and flap in 
the wind; the river-bank where he wandered aimlessly, singing a rdgd 
of his own invention at the top of his voice; the small stream in which he 
would jump and swim now and then in the heat of the day; his gang of 
followers; the mischief they would get up to; the freedom; above all his 
harsh, impetuous mother; all this tugged continually at his helpless heart. 
A kind of instinctive love, like an animal's; a blind longing to be near; an 
unspoken distress at being far; a heartfelt, anguished cry of 'Ma, Mcf 
like a motherless calf at dusk; such feelings perpetually afflicted this 
gawky, nervous, thin, lanky, ungainly boy. 



At school there was no one more stupid and inattentive than he. If 
asked a question he would just stare back vacantly. If the teacher cuffed 
him, he would silently bear it like a laden, exhausted ass. At break-time, he 
would stand at the window staring at the roofs of distant houses, while his 
classmates played outside. 

If a child or two appeared for a moment on one of the roofs, in the 
midday sunshine, playing some game, his misery intensified. 

One day he plucked up courage to ask his uncle, 'Uncle, when will I 
be going home to see Mother?' 

'When the school holiday comes,' said his uncle. The puja holiday in 
the month of Kartik-that was a long way off! 

One day Phatik lost his school-books. He never found it easy to prepare 
his lessons, and now, with his books lost, he was completely helpless. The 
teacher started to beat and humiliate him everyday. His standing in school 
sank so low that his cousins were ashamed to admit their connection with 
him. Whenever he was punished, they showed even greater glee than the 
other boys. It became too much to bear, and one day he went to his aunt and 
confessed like a criminal that he had lost his school-books. 'Well, well,' said 
his aunt, lines of annoyance curling round her lips, 'and do you suppose I can 
buy you new books five times a month?' He said no more. That he should 
have wasted someone else's money made him feel even more hurt and 
rejected by his mother. His misery and sense of inferiority dragged him down 
to the very earth. 

That night, when he returned from school, he had a pain in his head 
and was shivering. He could tell he was getting a fever. He also knew that his 
aunt would not take kindly to his being ill. He had a clear sense of what an 
unnecessary, unjustifiable nuisance it would be to her. He felt he had no right 
to expect that an odd, useless, stupid boy such as he should be nursed by 
anyone other than his mother. 

The next morning Phatik was nowhere to be seen. He was searched 
for in all the neighbours' houses round about, but there was no trace of him. 
In the evening torrential rain began, so in searching for him many people got 
soaked to the skin-to no avail. In the end, finding him nowhere, Bishvambhar 
Babu informed the police. 



A whole day later, in the evening, a carriage drew up outside 
Bishvambhar's house. Rain was still thudding down relentlessly, and the street 
was flooded to a knee's depth. Two policemen bundled Phatik out of the 
carriage and put him down in front of Bishvambhar. He was soaked from 
head to foot, covered with mud, his eyes and cheeks were flushed, he was 
trembling violently. Bishvambhar virtually had to carry him into the house. 

'You see what happens,' snapped his wife, 'when you take in someone 
else's child. You must send him home.' But in fact the whole of that day she 
had hardly been able to eat for worry, and had been unreasonably tetchy 
with her own children. 

'I was going to go to my mother,' said Phatik, weeping, 'but they brought 
me back.' 

The boy's fever climbed alarmingly. He was delirious all night. 
Bishvambhar fetched the doctor. Opening his bloodshot eyes for a moment 
and staring blankly at the ceiling joists, Phatik said, 'Uncle, has my holiday- 
time come?' Bishvambhar, dabbing his own eyes with a handkerchief, tenderly 
took Phatik's thin, hot hand in his and sat down beside him. He spoke again, 
mumbling incoherently: 'Mother, don't beat me, Mother. I didn't do anything 
wrong, honest!' 

The next day, during the short time when he was conscious, Phatik 
kept looking bewilderedly round the room, as if expecting someone. When 
no one came, he turned and lay mutely with his face towards the wall. 
Understanding what was on his mind, Bishvambhar bent down and said softly 
in his ear, 'Phatik, I've sent for your mother.' 

Another day passed. The doctor, looking solemn and gloomy, 
pronounced the boy's condition to be critical. Bishvambhar sat at the bedside 
in the dim lamplight, waiting minute by minute for Phatik's mother's arrival. 
Phatik started to shout out, like a boatman, 'More than one fathom deep, 
more than two fathoms deep!' To come to Calcutta they had had to travel 
some of the way by steamer. The boatman had lowered the hawser into the 
stream and bellowed out its depth. In his delirium, Phatik was imitating them, 
calling out the depth in pathetic tones; except that the endless sea he was 
about to cross had no bottom that his measuring-rope could touch. 



It was then that his mother stormed into the room, bursting into loud 
wails of grief. When, with difficulty, Bishvambhar managed to calm her down, 
she threw herself on to the bed and sobbed, 'Phatik, my darling, my treasure.' 

'Yes?' said Phatik, seemingly quite relaxed. 

'Phatik, darling boy,' cried his mother again. 

Turning slowly on to his side, and looking at no one, Phatik said softly, 
'Mother, my holiday has come now. I'm going home.' 

FOR READERS' PRACTICE 

I. Answer the following questions: 

1 . How did Phatik tease his brother? 

2. Why was Phatik's mother unhappy? 

3 . Who was the new visitor? 

4. What was the suggestion made by the visitor? 

5 . Why did Phatik's mother agree to send him to Calcutta? 

6 . Why was Phatik reluctant to go to Calcutta? 

7 . What kind of reception did Phatik receive in Calcutta? 

8. Why did Phatik dislike his school? 

9. What were the incidents that increased Phatik's misery in Calcutta. 

10. Why did Phatik run away from his uncle's house? 

11. In what condition was Phatik brought back? 

1 2. What was the doctor's advice? 

1 3 . What do you think happened to Phatik in the end? 

14. List out three things Phatik enjoyed in his village, which he missed in 
Calcutta. 

1 5 . What was the attitude of Phatik' s aunt towards Phatik? 

II. Read the passage given below and answer the questions: 

There were celebrations for several days. At length, a couple of days 
before his departure, Bhishvambar questioned his sister about the 
schooling and progress of her two sons. In reply, he was given a 
description of Phatik's uncontrollable wildnessand inattention to study; 
while Makhan, by contrast, was perfectly behaved and a model 

7 



student. 'Phatik drives me mad,' she said. Bhishvambar then proposed 
that he take Phatik to Calcutta, keep him with him and supervise his 
education. The widow easily agreed to this. 'Well, Phatik,' he asked 
the boy, 'how would you like to go to Calcutta with your uncle?' 'I'd 
love to', said Phatik, jumping up and down. 

1 . What were the celebrations for? 

2 . What was the complaint of Phatik' s mother? 

3 . How was Makhan different from Phatik? 

4. Why did Bishvambar suggest that he would take Phatik to Calcutta? 

5. What did Bishvambar promise to do? 

6 . How did Phatik react to the suggestion? 

SELF EVALUATION 

I. Rearrange the following sentences in the correct sequence: 

1 . Phatik's uncle offered to take him to Calcutta. 

2. One day Phatik lost his school bag. 

3 . Phatik's mother could not control Phatik in the village. 

4. Phatik found that he was an unwelcome guest in Calcutta. 

5 . Phatik agreed to go to Calcutta. 

6 . Phatik gave away all his collections to his brother. 

7 . Phatik's aunt was annoyed by his carelessness. 

8 . Phatik's aunt was not pleased at his arrival. 

9 . Phatik reached his uncle's house. 

10. Phatik ran away from his uncle's house. 

1. Write an essay on how the life of Phatik in Calcutta differed from 
his life in village by developing the hints given below: 

Phatik - village boy - father died - lived in village with mother and 
brother - gang leader of village - established his authority over his 
brother - indifferent to others - made his mother unhappy - wild in 
behaviour - inattentive in studies - flying kites - aimless wandering in 
village - was like a monarch - Calcutta - affection was missing - 
confined to four walls - no company in school - inattentiveness 
conspicuous - cousins enjoyed when he was punished - aunt scolded 
for losing books - His vanity gone - he longed for love. 



Under what circumstances did Phatik agree to go to Calcutta? 

Phatik - fatherless boy - wild in behaviour - inattentive in studies - 
brother behaved well - log on the river bank - wanted to roll - Makhan 
disobeyed - quarrel - visitor arrives - Phatik indifferent - At home 
mother furious - complains to her brother, the visitor - uncle offers to 
educate Phatik in Calcutta - Reasons for the mother's approval - 
Phatik's agreeing - Phatik has no idea of future. 



THE NECKLACE 

Guy de Maupassant 

She was one of those pretty, charming young ladies, born as if through 
an error of destiny, into a family of clerks. She had no dowry, no hopes, no 
means of becoming known, appreciated, loved, and married by a man either 
rich or distinguished; and she allowed herself to marry a petty clerk in the 
office of the Board of Education. 

She was simple, not being able to adorn herself; but she was unhappy, 
as one out of her class; for women belong to no caste, no race; their grace, 
their beauty, and their charm serving them in the place of birth and family. 
Their inborn fineness, their instinctive elegance, their suppleness of wit are 
their only aristocracy, making some daughters of the people the equal of 
great ladies. 

She suffered incessantly, feeling herself born for all delicacies and 
luxuries. She suffered from the poverty of her apartment, the shabby walls, 
the worn chairs, and the faded stuffs. All these things, which another woman 
of her station would not have noticed, tortured and angered her. The sight 
of the little Breton, who made this humble home, awoke in her sad regrets 
and desperate dreams. She thought of quiet antechambers, with their Oriental 
hangings, lighted by high, bronze torches, and of the two great footmen in 
short trousers who sleep in the large armchairs, made sleepy by the heavy 
air from the heating apparatus. She thought of large drawing-rooms, hung 
in old silks, of graceful pieces of furniture carrying bric-a-brac of inestimable 
value, and of the little perfumed coquettish apartments, made for five o' 
clock chats with most intimate friends, men known and sought after, whose 
attention all women envied and desired. 

When she seated herself for dinner, before the round table where the 

table cloth had been used three days, opposite her husband who uncovered 

the tureen with a delighted air, saying: 'Oh! the good potpie! I know nothing 

better than that-' she would think of the elegant dinners, of the shining 

silver, of the tapestries peopling the walls with ancient personages and rare 

10 



birds in the midst of fairy forests; she thought of the exquisite food served 
on marvellous dishes, of the whispered gallantries, listened to with the smile 
of the sphinx, while eating the rose-coloured flesh of the trout or a chicken's 
wing. 

She had neither frocks nor jewels , nothing. And she loved only those 
things. She felt that she was made for them. She had such a desire to please, 
to be sought after, to be clever, and courted. 

She had a rich friend, a school mate at the convent, whom she did not 
like to visit, she suffered so much when she returned. And she wept for 
whole days from chagrin, from regret, from despair, and disappointment. 

One evening her husband returned elated bearing in his hand a large 
envelope. 

'Here,' he said, ' here is something for you.' 

She quickly tore open the wrapper and drew out a printed card on 
which were inscribed these words: 

The Minister of Public Instruction 

and Madame George Ramponneau 

ask the honor of M. and Mme. Loisel's Company 

Monday evening, January 1 8, at the Minister's residence. 

Instead of being delighted, as her husband had hoped, she threw the 
invitation spitefully upon the table murmuring: 

'What do you suppose I want with that?' 

'But, my dearie, I thought it would make you happy. You never go 
out, and this is an occasion, and a fine one! I had a great deal of trouble to 
get it. Everybody wishes one, and it is very select; not many are given to 
employees. You will see the whole official world there.' 

She looked at him with an irritated eye and declared impatiently; 

'What do you suppose I have to wear to such a thing as that?' 

He had not thought of that; he stammered: 

'Why, the dress you wear when we go to the theatre. It seems very 
pretty to me-' 



He was silent, stupefied, in dismay, at the sight of his wife weeping. 
Two great tears fell slowly from the corners of her eyes toward the corners 
of her mouth; he stammered: 

'What is the matter? What is the matter?' 

By a violent effort, she had controlled her vexation and responded in 
a calm voice, wiping her moist cheeks: 

'Nothing. Only I have no dress and consequently I cannot go to this 
affair. Give your card to some colleague whose wife is better fitted out than 
I.' 

He was grieved, but answered: 

'Let us see, Matilda. How much would a suitable costume cost, 
something that would serve for other occasions, something very simple?' 

She reflected for some seconds, making estimates and thinking of a 
sum that she could ask for without bringing with it an immediate refusal 
and a frightened exclamation from the economical clerk. 

Finally she said, in a hesitating voice: 

'I cannot tell exactly, but it seems to me that four hundred francs 
ought to cover it' 

He turned a little pale, for he had saved just this sum to buy a gun that 
he might be able to join some hunting parties the next summer, on the plains 
at Nanterre, with some friends who went to shoot larks up there on Sunday. 
Nevertheless, he answered: 

'Very well. I will give you four hundred francs. But try to have a 
pretty dress.' 

The day of the ball approached and Mme. Loisel seemed sad, disturbed, 
anxious. Nevertheless, her dress was nearly ready. Her husband said to her 
one evening: 

'What is the matter with you? You have acted strangely for two or 
three days.' 

And she responded: T am vexed not to have a jewel, not one stone, 

nothing to adorn myself with. I shall have such a poverty-laiden look. I 

would prefer not to go to this party.' 

12 



He replied: 'You can wear some natural flowers. At this season they 
look very chic. For ten francs you can have two or three magnificent roses.' 

She was not convinced. 'No,' she replied, ' there is nothing more 
humiliating than to have a shabby air in the midst of rich women.' 

Then her husband cried out: 'How stupid we are! Go and find your 
friend Mme. Forestier and ask her to lend you her jewels. You are well 
enough acquainted with her to do this.' 

She uttered a cry of joy: 'It is true!' she said. T had not thought of 
that.' 

The next day she took herself to her friend's house and related her 
story of distress. Mme. Forestier went to her closet with the glass doors, 
took out a large jewel - case, brought it, opened it, and said: 'Choose my 
dear.' 

She saw at first some bracelets, then a collar of pearls, then a Venetian 
cross of gold and jewels of admirable workmanship. She tried the jewels 
before the glass, hesitated, but could neither decide to take them nor leave 
them. Then she asked: 

'Have you nothing more?' 

'Why, yes. Look for yourself. I do not know what will please you. 
' Suddenly she discovered, in a black satin box, a superb necklace of diamonds, 
and her heart beat fast with an immoderate desire. Her hands trembled as 
she took them up. She placed them about her throat against her dress, and 
remained in ecstasy before them. Then she asked, in a hesitating voice, full of 
anxiety: 

'Could you lend me this? Only this?' 

'Why, yes, certainly.' 

She fell upon the neck of her friend, embraced her with passion, then 
went away with her treasure. 

The day of the ball arrived. Mme. Loisel was a great success. She was 

the prettiest of all, elegant, gracious, smiling, and full of joy. All the men 

noticed her, asked her name, and wanted to be presented. All the members 

of the Cabinet wished to waltz with her. The Minister of Education paid her 

some attention. 

13 



She danced with enthusiasm, with passion, intoxicated with pleasure, 
thinking of nothing, in the triumph of her beauty, in the glory of her success, in 
a kind of cloud of happiness that came of all this homage, and all this admiration, 
of all these awakened desires, and this victory so complete and sweet to the 
heart of a woman. 

She went home toward four o' clock in the morning. Her husband had 
been half asleep in one of the little salons since midnight, with three other 
gentlemen whose wives were enjoying themselves very much. 

He threw around her shoulders the wraps they had carried for the 
coming home, modest garments of everyday wear, whose poverty clashed 
with the elegance of the ball costume. She felt this and wished to hurry away 
in order not to be noticed by the other women who were wrapping themselves 
in rich furs. 

Loisel detained her: 'wait,' said he. 'You will catch cold out there. I 
am going to call a cab. ' 

But she would not listen and descended the steps rapidly, when they 
were in the street, they found no carriage; and they began to seek for one, 
hailing the coachmen whom they saw at a distance. 

They walked along toward the Seine, hopeless and shivering. Finally 
they found on the dock one of those old, nocturnal coupes that one sees in 
Paris after nightfall, as if they were ashamed of their misery by day. 

It took them as far as their door in Martyr street, and they went wearily 
up to their apartment. It was all over for her. And on his part, he remembered 
that he would have to be at the office by ten o' clock. 

She removed the wraps from her shoulders before the glass, for a final 
view of herself in her glory. Suddenly she uttered a cry. Her necklace was 
not around her neck. 

Her husband, already half undressed, asked: 'What is the matter?' 

She turned towards him excitedly: 

'I have-I have-I no longer have Mme. Forestier's necklace.' 

He arose in dismay: 'What! How is that? It is not possible.' 



14 



And they looked in the folds of the dress, in the folds of the mantle, in 
the pockets, everywhere. They could not find it. 

He asked: 'you are sure you still had it when we left the house?' 

'Yes, I felt it in the vestibule as we came out.' 

'But if you had lost it in the street, we should have heard it fall. It must 
be in the cab.' 

'Yes. It is probable. Did you take the number?' 

'No. And you, did you notice what it was?' 

'No.' 

They looked at each other utterly cast down. Finally Loisel dressed 
himself again. 

T am going,' said he, 'over the track where we went on foot, to see if 
I can find it' 

And he went. She remained in her evening gown, not having the force 
to go to bed, stretched upon a chair, without ambition or thoughts. 

Toward seven o' clock her husband returned. He had found nothing. 

He went to the police and to the cab offices, and put an advertisement 
in the newspapers, offering a reward; he did everything that afforded them a 
suspicion of hope. 

She waited all day in a state of bewilderment before this frightful disaster. 
Loisel returned at evening with his face harrowed and pale; and had discovered 
nothing. 

'It will be necessary,' said he, 'to write to your friend that you have 
broken the clasp of the necklace and that you will have it repaired. That will 
give us time to turn around.' 

She wrote as he dictated. 

At the end of a week, they had lost all hope. And Loisel, older by five 
years, declared: 

'We must take measures to replace this jewel. ' 

The next day they took the box which had enclosed it, to the jeweler 
whose name was on the inside. He consulted his books: 

15 



'It is not I, Madame,' said he, ' who sold this necklace; I only furnished 
the casket.' 

Then they went from jeweler to jeweler seeking a necklace like the 
other one, consulting their memories, and fill, both of them, with chagrin and 
anxiety. 

In a shop of the Palais-Royal, they found a chaplet of diamonds which 
seemed to them exactly like the one they had lost. It was valued at forty 
thousand francs. They could get it for thirty-six thousand. 

They begged the jeweler not to sell it for three days. And they made an 
arrangement by which they might return it for thirty-four thousand francs if 
they found the other one before the end of February. 

Loisel possessed eighteen thousand francs which his father had left 
him. He borrowed the rest. 

He borrowed it, asking for a thousand francs of one, five hundred of 
another, five louis of this one, and three louis of that one. He gave notes, 
made ruinous promises, took money of usurers and the whole race of lenders. 
He compromised his whole existence, in fact risked his signature, without 
even knowing whether he could make it good or not, and , harassed by 
anxiety for the future, by the black misery which surrounded him, and by the 
prospect of all physical privations and moral torture, he went to get the new 
necklace, depositing on the merchant's counter thirty-six thousand francs. 

When Mme. Loisel took back the jewels to Mme. Forestier, the latter 
said to her in a frigid tone: 

'You should have returned them to me sooner, for I might have needed 
them' 

She did open the jewel-box as her friend feared she would. If she 
should perceive the substitution, what would she think? What should she 
say? Would she take her for a robber? 

Mme. Loisel now knew the horrible life of necessity. She did her part, 
however, completely, heroically. It was necessary to pay this frightful debt. 
She would pay it. they sent away the maid; they changed their lodgings; they 
rented some rooms under a mansard roof. 



16 



She learned the heavy cares of a household, the odious work of a 
kitchen. She washed the dishes, using her rosy nails upon the greasy pots 
and the bottoms of the stewpans. She washed the soiled linen, the 
chemises and dishcloths, which she hung on the line to dry; she took down the refuse 
to the street each morning and brought up the water, stopping at each landing 
to breathe. And, clothed like a woman of the people, she went to the grocer's, 
the butcher's and the fruiterer's, with her basket on her arm, shopping, 
haggling to the last sou of her miserable money. 

Every month it was necessary to renew some notes, thus obtaining 
time, and to pay others. 

The husband worked evenings, putting the books of some merchants 
in order, and nights he often did copying at five sous a page. 

And this life lasted for ten years. 

At the end of ten years, they had restored all, all, with interest of the 
usurer, and accumulated interest besides. 

Mme. Loisel seemed old now. She had become a strong, hard woman, 
the crude woman of the poor household. Her hair badly dressed, her skirts 
awry, her hands red, she spoke in a loud tone, and washed the floors with 
large pails of water. But sometimes, when her husband was at the office, she 
would seat herself before the window and think of that evening party of former 
times, of that ball where she was so beautiful and so flattered. 

How would it have been if she had not lost the necklace? Who knows? 
Who knows? How singular is life, and how full of changes! How small a 
thing will ruin or save one ! 

One Sunday as she was taking a walk in the Champs-Elysees to rid 
herself of the cares of the week, she suddenly perceived a woman walking 
with a child. It was Mme. Forestier, still young, still pretty, still attractive. 
Mme. Loisel was affected. Should she speak to her? Yes, certainly. And 
now that she had paid, she would tell her all. Why not? 

She approached her. 'Good morning, Jeanne.' 

'Her friend did not recognize her and was astonished to be so familiarly 
addressed by this common personage, she stammered: 



17 



'But, Madame - 1 do not know - You must be mistaken-' 

'No, I am Matilda Loisel. 

Her friend uttered a cry of astonishment: 'Oh! my poor Matilda! 

How you have changed -' 

'Yes, I have had some hard days since I saw you; and some miserable 
ones - and all because of you-' 

'Because of me? How is that?' 

'You recall the diamond necklace that you loaned me to wear to the 
Commissioner's ball?' 

'Yes, very well.' 

'Well, I lost it.' 

'How is that, since you returned it to me?' 

'I returned another to you exactly like it. And it has taken us ten years 
to pay for it. You can understand that it was not easy for us who have nothing. 
But it is finished and I am decently content.' 

Madame Forestier stopped short. She said: 

'You say that you bought a diamond necklace to replace mine?' 

'Yes. You did not perceive it then? They were just alike.' 

And she smiled with a proud and simple joy. Madame Forestier was 
touched and took both her hands as she replied: 

'Oh! my poor Matilda! Mine were false. They were not worth over 
five hundred francs ! ' 

FOR READERS' PRACTICE 

I. Answer the following questions: 

1 . Write in five sentences the type of life Matilda Loisel wanted to lead. 

2 . Why did Matilda often weep? 

3. Why was Matilda unhappy when her husband brought her the 
invitation? 

4. How did Mr.Loisel get his wife a new dress. 

18 



5 . Why was Matilda sorry on the day of the party? 

6. How did Mme. Forestier help Matilda? 

7 . What was Matilda's experience in the party? 

8 . What gave Matilda a rude shock when she went home? 

9. What excuse did Matilda give Mme. Forestier for not returning the 
necklace? 

10. How did Mr.and Mme Loisel manage to return the necklace? 

11. How did the life of Mr and Mme. Loisel change after returning the 
necklace? 

1 2 . How did she meet Mme. Forestier? 

1 3 . What did Mrs . Forestier say about the necklace? 

14. Why was Matilda shocked? 

1 5 . What is the moral of the story? 

II. Read the passage given below and answer the questions: 

She was simple, not being able to adorn herself; but she was unhappy, 
as one out of her class; for women belong to no caste, no race; their 
grace, their beauty, and their charm serving them in the place of birth 
and family. Their inborn fineness, their instinctive elegance, their 
suppleness of wit are their only aristocracy, making some daughters of 
the people the equal of great ladies. 

She suffered incessantly, feeling herself born for all delicacies and luxuries. 
She suffered from the poverty of her apartment, the shabby walls, the 
worn chairs, and the faded stuff. All these things, which another woman 
of her station would not have noticed, tortured and angered her. 

1 . Why was the woman referred to in the story unhappy? 

2 . What qualities of a woman make her equal in status to great ladies? 

3 . Why did the woman suffer? 

4. What were the things she was unhappy about? 

5 . How did she differ from any other woman of her status ? 

SELF EVALUATION 

I. Re arrange the following sentences in the correct sequence: 

1 . Mr.Loisel suggested borrowing jewellery from Mrs. Forestier. 

2. They bought the new necklace for thirty-six thousand francs. 



19 



3 . Matilda borrowed a diamond necklace from Mrs. Forestier. 

4 . Mr.Loisel gave the invitation to his wife. 

5 . Matilda w as a great success in the party. 

6. Matilda asked for a new dress for the party. 

7 . When she returned home, Matilda found the necklace missing. 

8 . Matilda was unhappy over her not having any jewel. 

9 . They could not find the necklace anywhere. 

10. They decided to replace the necklace. 

11. Write an essay on how the 'Necklace' changed the life of the 
Matilda by developing the hints given below: 

Matilda married to a petty clerk-They were poor-she longed for a luxurious 
life - Her husband brought invitation - Desire for a new dress and jewellery 
- borrowed a necklace - Party goes off well - Necklace lost - they get 
time - buy a new necklace - return it - to pay the debt lead a simple life - 
Many years pass by - Mme.Forestier is met - Listens to the story - says 
that necklace is imitation - a small thing has ruined their life. 

2 . Present a character sketch of Matilda. 

Matilda - wife of petty clerk - poor condition of her home - Her longing for 
a luxurious life - Invitation for ball - Loisel wants to make her happy - she 
desires a new dress -jewellery - happy at last - happiness short lived - 
necklace - shocked - had to replace necklace - now accepts a lesser 
standard of living - life is miserable - no complaints - shocked by the 
revelation that the necklace was imitation 



20 



THE GIFT OF THE MAGI 

O.Henry 

One dollar and eighty-seven cents. That was all. And sixty cents of it 
was in pennies. Pennies saved one and two at a time by bulldozing the 
grocer and the vegetable man and the butcher until one's cheeks burned 

with the silent imputation of parsimony that such close dealing implied 
Three times Delia counted it. One dollar and eighty seven cents. And the 

next day would be Christmas. 

There was clearly nothing left to do but flop down on the shabby little 
couch and howl. So Delia did it. Which instigates the moral reflection that 
life is made up of sobs, sniffles, and smiles, with sniffles predominating. 

While the mistress of the home is gradually subsiding from the first 
stage to the second, take a look at the home. A furnished flat at $8 per 
week. It did not exactly beggar description, but it certainly had that word on 
the lookout for the mendicancy squad. 

In the vestibule below was a letter-box into which no letter would 
go, and an electric button from which no mortal finger could coax a ring. 
Also appertaining thereunto was a card bearing the name 'Mr James 
Dillingham Young' . 

The 'Dillingham' had been flung to the breeze during a former period 
of prosperity when its possessor was being paid $30 per week. Now when 
the income was shrunk to $20, the letters of Dillingham looked blurred, as 
though they were thinking seriously of contracting to a modest and 
unassuming D. But whenever Mr.James Dillingham Young came home and 
reached his flat above he was called 'Jim' and greatly hugged by Mrs James 
Dillingham Young, already introduced to you as Delia. Which is all very 
good. 

Delia finished her cry and attended to her cheeks with a powder rag. 
She stood by the window and looked out dully at a grey cat walking a grey 

21 



fence in a grey backyard. Tomorrow would be Christmas Day, and she had 
only $1.87 with which to buy Jim a present. She had been saving every 
penny she could for months, with this result. Twenty dollars a week doesn't 
go far. Expenses had been greater than she had calculated. They always are. 
Only $1.87 to buy a present for Jim. Her Jim. Many a happy hour she had 
spent planning for something nice for him. Something fine and rare and sterling 
- some thing just a little bit near to being worthy of the honour of being 
owned by Jim. 

There was a pier-glass between the windows of the room. Perhaps 
you have seen a pier-glass in a $8 flat. A very thin and very agile person 
may, by observing his reflection in a rapid sequence of longitudinal strips, 
obtain a fairly accurate conception of his looks. Delia, being slender, had 
mastered the art. 

Suddenly she whirled from the window and stood before the glass. 
Her eyes were shining brilliantly, but her face had lost its colour within twenty 
seconds. Rapidly she pulled down her hair and let it fall to its full length. 

Now, there were two possessions of the James Dillingham Youngs in 
which they both took a mighty pride. One was Jim's gold watch that had 
been his father's and his grandfather's, the other was Delia's hair. Had the 
Queen of Sheeba lived in the flat across the airshaft, Delia would have let her 
hair hang out of the window some day to dry just to depreciate Her Majesty's 
jewels and gifts. Had king Solomon been the janitor, with all his treasures 
piled up in the basement, Jim would have pulled out his watch every time he 
passed, just to see him pluck at his beard from envy. 

So now Delia's beautiful hair fell about her, rippling and shining like a 
cascade of brown waters. It reached below her knees and made itself almost 
a garment for her. And then she did it up again nervously and quickly. Once 
she faltered for a minute and stood still while a tear or two splashed on the 
worn red carpet. 

On went her old brown jacket; on went her old brown hat. With a 
whirl of skirts and with the brilliant sparkle still in her eyes, she fluttered out 
of the door and down the stairs to the street. 



22 



Where she stopped the sign read: Mme Sofronie, Hair Goods of All Kinds. 
One flight up Delia ran, and collected herself, panting. Mademe, large, too white, 
chilly, hardly looked the ' Sofronie' . 

'Will you buy my hair?' asked Delia. 'I buy hair,' said Madame. 

'Take yer hat off and let's have a sight at the looks of it.' 

Down rippled the brown cascade. 

'Twenty dollars,' said Madame, lifting the mass with a practised hand. 

'Give it to me quick,' said Delia. 

Oh, and the next two hours tripped by on rosy wings. Forget the hashed 
metaphor. She was ransacking the stores for Jim's present. 

She found it at last. It surely had been made for Jim and no one else. 

There was no other like it in any of the stores, and she had turned all of 
them inside out. It was a platinum fob chain, simple and chaste in design, properly 
proclaiming its value by substance alone and not by meretricious ornamentation 
- as all good things should do. It was even worthy of the Watch. As soon as she 
saw it she knew that it must be Jim's. It was like him. Quietness and value-the 
description applied to both. Twenty-one dollars they took from her for it, and 
she hurried home with the 87 cents. With that chain on his watch Jim might be 
properly anxious about the time in any company. Grand as the watch was, he 
sometimes looked at it on the sly on account of the old leather strap that he used 
in place of a chain. 

When Delia reached home her intoxication gave way a little to prudence 
and reason. She got out her curling irons and lighted the gas and went to work 
repairing the ravages made by generosity added to love. Which is always a 
tremendous task, dear friend -a mammoth task. 

Wthin forty minutes her head was covered with tiny, close-lying curls that 
made her look wonderfully like a truant schoolboy. She looked at her reflection 
in the mirror long, carefully, and critically. 

'If Jim doesn't kill me,' she said to herself, ' before he takes a second look 
at me, he'll say I look like a Coney Island chorus girl. But what could I do-oh, 
what could I do with a dollar and eighty seven cents?' 

At 7o' clock the coffee was made and the frying-pan was on the back of 

the stove, hot and ready to cook the chops. 

23 



Jim was never late. Delia doubled the fob chain in her hand and sat 
on the corner of the table near the door that he always entered. Then she 
heard his step on the stairway down on the first flight, and she turned white 
for just a moment. She had a habit of saying little silent prayers about the 
simplest everyday things, and now she whispered: 'Please, God, make him 
think I am still pretty. ' 

The door opened and Jim stepped in and closed it. He looked thin and 
very serious. Poor fellow, he was only twenty-two - and to be burdened 
with a family ! He needed a new overcoat and he was without gloves. 

Jim stepped inside the door, as immovable as a setter at the scent of 
quail. His eyes were fixed on Delia, and there was an expression in them 
that she could not read, and it terrified her. It was not anger, nor surprise, 
nor disapproval, nor horror, not any of the sentiments that she had been 
prepared for. He simply stared at her fixedly with that peculiar expression 
on his face. 

Delia wriggled off the table and went for him. 

'Jim, darling,' she cried, ' don't look at me that way. I had my hair cut 
off and sold it because I couldn't have lived through Christmas without 
giving you a present. It'll grow out again - you won't mind, will you? I just 
had to do it. My hair grows awfully fast. Say "Merry Christmas!" Jim, and 
let's be happy. You don't know what a nice-what a beautiful, nice gift I've 
got for you.' 

'You've cut off your hair?' asked Jim, laboriously, as if he had not 
arrived at that patent fact yet, even after the hardest mental labour. 

'Cut it off and sold it,' said Delia. 'Don't you like me just as well, 
anyhow? I'm me without my hair, ain't I? 

Jim looked about the room curiously. 

'You say your hair is gone?' he said, with an air almost of idiocy. 

'You needn't look for it,' said Delia. It's sold. I tell you-sold and 
gone, too. It's Christmas Eve, boy. Be good to me, for it went for you. 
Maybe the hairs of my head were numbered,' she went on with a sudden 
serious sweetness, 'but nobody could ever count my love for you. Shall I 
put the chops on, Jim?' 

24 



Out of his trance Jim seemed quickly to wake. He enfolded his Delia. 
For ten seconds let us regard with discreet scrutiny some inconsequential 
object in the other direction. Eight dollars a week or a million a year-what is 
the difference? A mathematician or a wit would give you the wrong answer. 
The Magi brought valuable gifts, but that was not among them. This dark 
assertion will be illuminated later on. 

Jim drew a package from his overcoat pocket and threw it upon the 
table. 

'Don't make any mistake, Dell,' he said, 'about me. I don't think there's 
anything in the way of a haircut or a shave or a shampoo that could make me 
like my girl any less. But if you'll unwrap that package you may see why you 
had me going awhile at first.' 

White fingers and nimble tore at the string and paper. And then an 
ecstatic scream of joy; and then, alas ! A quick feminine change to hysterical 
tears and wails, necessitating the immediate employment of all the comforting 
powers of the lord of the flat. 

For there lay The Combs-the set of combs, side and back, that Delia 
had worshipped for long in a Broadway window. Beautiful combs, pure 
tortoise-shell, with jewelled rims-just the shade to wear in the beautiful 
vanished hair. They were expensive combs, she knew, and her heart had 
simply craved and yearned over them without the least hope of possession. 
And now, they were hers, but the tresses that should have adorned the coveted 
adornments were gone. 

But she hugged them to her bosom, and at length she was able to look 
up with dim eyes and a smile and say: ' My hair grows so fast, Jim ! ' 

And then Delia leaped up like a little singed cat and cried, 'Oh, Oh! ' 

Jim had not yet seen his beautiful present. She held it out to him eagerly 
upon her open palm. The dull precious metal seemed to flash with a reflection 
of her bright and ardent spirit. 

'Isn't it a dandy, Jim? I hunted all over town to find it. You'll have to 
look at the time a hundred times a day now. Give me your watch. I want to 
see how it looks on it.' 

Instead of obeying, Jim tumbled down on the couch and put his hands 

under the back of his head and smiled. 

25 



'Dell,' said he, 'let's put our Christmas presents away and keep'em 
awhile. They're too nice to use just at present. I sold the watch to get the 
money to buy your combs. And now suppose you put the chops on.' 

The Magi, as you know, were wise men-wonderfully wise men-who 
brought gifts to the Babe in the manger. They invented the art of giving Christmas 
presents. Being wise, their gifts were no doubt wise ones, possibly bearing the 
privilege of exchange in case of duplication. And here I have 
lamely related to you the uneventful chronicle of two foolish children in a flat 
who most unwisely sacrificed for each other the greatest treasures of their 
house. But in a last word to the wise of these days let it be said that of all 
who give gifts these two were the wisest. Of all who give and receive gifts, 
such as they are wisest. Everywhere they are wisest. They are the Magi. 

FOR READERS' PRACTICE 

I. Answer the following questions: 

1 . How did Delia save the money she needed for buying the Christmas 
gift? 

2. How did Delia make full use of the Pier-glass? 

3 . What kind of present had Delia planned to buy for Jim? 

4. What were the proud possessions of the Dillinghams? 

5 . What did Delia decide to present Jim? Why? 

6 . How did Jim react on entering the house? 

7 . How did Delia convince Jim who was visibly upset? 

8 . Were the couple leading a happy life? 

9 . Why was Jim unable to digest the fact that Delia had sold her hair? 

10. 'True love builds its edifice on sacrifice' -Explain. 

1 1 . Who were the Magi? 

1 2 . What is the irony in the story? 

II. Read the following passage and answer the questionso given below: 

One dollar and eighty-seven cents. That was all. And sixty cents of it 
was in pennies. Pennies saved one and two at a time by bulldozing the grocer 
and the vegetable man and the butcher until one's cheeks burned with the 
silent imputation of parsimony that such close dealing implied. 



26 



Three times Delia counted it. One dollar and eighty-seven cents. And the 
next day would be Christmas. 

There was clearly nothing left to do but flop down on the shabby little 
couch and howl. So Delia did it. Which instigates the moral reflection that 
life is made up of sobs, sniffles, and smiles, with sniffles predominating. 

While the mistress of the home is gradually subsiding from the first 
stage to the second, take a look at the home. A furnished flat at $8 per 
week. It did not exactly beggar description, but it certainly had that word on 
the lookout for the mendicancy squad. 

In the vestibule below was a letter-box into which no letter would 
go, and an electric button from which no mortal finger could coax a ring. 
Also appertaining thereunto was a card bearing the name 'Mr James 
Dillingham Young' . 

The 'Dillingham' had been flung to the breeze during a former period 
of prosperity when its possessor was being paid $30 per week. Now when 
the income was shrunk to $20, the letters of Dillingham looked blurred, as 
though they were thinking seriously of contracting to a modest and 
unassuming D. But whenever Mr.James Dillingham Young came home 
and reached his flat above he was called 'Jim' and greatly hugged by Mrs James 
Dillingham Young, already introduced to you as Delia. Which is all very 
good. 

1 . How were the precious pennies saved? 

2 . Why did Delia count the money thrice? 

3 . Were the Dillinghams leading a life of comfort? 

4. Did the decrease in income upset the couple? 

5 . What is the author's reflection on life? 

SELF EVALUATION 

I. Rearrange the following sentences in the correct sequence: 

1 . The gift was a set of comb s . 

2. Jim reached home late. 

3 . Delia held out to Jim the platinum fob chain. 

4. Jim was shocked when he looked at Delia. 

5. Delia found that she did not have enough money to buy her husband a 

Christmas gift. 

27 



6 . Jim suggested to keep away the gifts for a while. 

7 . Jim said that he had sold his watch to buy the gift. 

8 . Delia sold her hair and bought a platinum fob chain. 

9 . Delia said that her hair would grow fast. 

1 . Jim gave Delia his gift. 

11. Write an essay on 'True love and sacrifice' by developing the hints 
given below: 

Jim and Delia - ideal couple - humble living - life - a combination 
of sobs and smiles - two proud possessions - Jim's gold watch - Delia's 
hair - Delia's Christmas gift - wishes - most valuable gift - sells her hair - 
buys - Platinum chain - Jim sells his watch -buys combs for Delia - both 
the gifts meaningless now - but remain a symbol of true love - sacrifice 
being - the edifice - Jim and Delia - wisest Magi. 



28 



REFLOWERING 

Sundara Ramaswamy 

Amma was lying on the cot and I was curled up on the floor right next 
to it. Amma and I were free to get up as late as we pleased. We had made it 
our habit over the years. We had to put up a battle of sorts to win it. Ours is 
a family that takes pride in the fact that we safeguard the dharma of the 
early-riser. For generations now, we've all bathed before sunrise. But then, 
Amma and I were invalids. Amma had asthma and I suffered from joint 
pains. Both could create problems early in the morning. 

Outside, there was sounds of the horse shaking its mane, of its bells 
jangling. The horse buggy was ready. This meant that Appa had picked up 
the bunch of keys for his shop. It also meant that the clock was inching 
towards eight-thirty. He would now put on his slippers. Kweech. Kweech. 
Then, once downstairs, the abrupt impatient sound of the umbrella opening, 
closing. The daily umbrella-health-test, that. 

The door opened slightly. A thin streak of sunlight pranced into the 
room, a shifting glass-pipe of light, dust swirling inside it. Appa! I see him 
in profile-one eye, spectacles, half a forehead streaked with vibhuti and a 
dot of chandanam paste, golden-yellow, topped by a vivid spot of red 
kumkumam. 

'Boy ! Ambi! Get up!' Appa said. 

I closed my eyes. I did not move a limb. As if I were held captive by 
deep sleep. 

'Ai! Get up. You good-for-nothing,' Amma said. 'Appa's calling.' 

On the sly I looked at Appa. He looked affectionate, even gentle. As if 
I were being roused from heavy slumber, I opened my eyes with pretended 
difficulty. 

'Get ready, Ambi. Eat and then go to Aanaipaalam,' said Appa. 

29 



'Go and bring Rowther to the shop straightaway. I'll send the buggy 
back for you.' 

I looked at Appa, then at Amma. I had told her about the squabble 
between Appa and Rowther in the shop the previous day. 

'Can you or can you not manage without him?' asked Amma. 

'This farce has gone on far too long,' she said. 'Making up one day 
and parting the next ! ' 

Appa's face reddened. It seemed as if, if it grew any redder, blood 
might start dribbling from the tip of his nose. 

'Onam is round the corner. You can come to the shop and make the 
bills,' he screamed. Anger twisted his lips, slurred and flattened out the words. 

'Is Rowther the only person in this whole world who knows how to 
make bills?' asked Amma. 

'Shut your mouth!' yelled Appa. Abruptly he turned to me. 'Get up, 
you!' he ordered. 

I sprang up from my bed and stood taut as a strung bow. 

'Go. Do what I told you to,' he growled.As if someone unseen had 
tugged at the wheels attached to my feet, I moved swiftly out of the room. 
I heard the horse buggy leave the house. I got ready in double quick 
time. What briskness ! I wore-as I usually didn't-a dhoti over my half pants, 
and a full-sleeved shirt, all in the hope that it would make me speak up with 
some confidence. I didn't feel my usual anger with Appa. I didn't feel sad 
either. It seemed as if even some little fondness seeped through. Poor thing ! 
He had got himself into a fix. On an impulse, he'd spoken harshly to Rowther. 
He could have been more calm. Now, if a person is merely short tempered, 
one can talk of calmness. But if he is anger personified? 

Excited by this paradox, I went and stood before Amma. I looked her 
straight in the face and I said, 'If he is anger personified where is the question 
of calmness?' Amma laughed; almost at once, she made her face stern and, 
'Smart, aren't you?' she asked. ' Now, if you are a clever boy, you'll go take 
Rowther to the shop.' Placing her right hand over her heart she said, 'Tell 
him whatever he may have said, I apologise for it. ' 

30 



I went and climbed into the buggy. 

I too thought that we could not manage the Onam festival sales without 
Rowther. Who could do sums like him? He was lightning quick in mental 
arithmetic. Five people sitting in a row, with paper and pencils, would not be 
equal to one Rowther and his brain. Remarkable. Even regular buyers who 
flocked round him to have their bills tallied were amazed. 'Is this a mere 
human brain?' many wondered aloud. 'If the man can be this fast just by 
listening to the figures, what would he not do if he'd been granted sight?' 
And to think that Rowther has only studied up to the third class. That's two 
grades less than Gomathi who works in the shop, fetching and cleaning. The 
dispute between Appa and Rowther had started mildly enough the previous 
evening. 'Look here, Rowther, what are you going to do if you let your debts 
keep mounting like this?' Appa asked. Rowther had chosen all the clothes 
he wanted, piled them up by his side, before thinking of asking Appa for 
credit. It was quite clear that Appa did not like this. 

'What can I do, Ayyah? My house is full of women. My sons are 
useless. My sons-in-law are useless. Four sons, four daughters-in-law, eight 
granddaughters, eight grandsons. How many is that? Just one piece of cloth 
each, and the cost goes up.' 

Appa was staring at Rowther, as if thinking. The man is getting out of 
hand. I must cut him to size. Right away. 

'Kolappa, wrap up the clothes and give me the bill,' said Rowther. 

How dare he take the things before permission had been granted? 
Appa's face reddened. 'It is not possible for me to give you credit this time,' 
he said. 

'So, you're saying you don't want our relationship to continue, no, 
Ayyah? All right. Girl, take me home. ' 

Rowther stood up. Gomathi took his right arm placed it on her left 
shoulder. They went down the steps. When the shop closed in the evening, 
he would usually look in the direction of my father and take permission to 
leave. That particular evening he did not take permission. That is, he had 
taken leave. 



31 



I thought I would first pick up Gomathi and take her with me to 
Rowther's house. That would perhaps lessen his hurt. But Gomathi was not 
at home. 'Rowther had sent word that he was not coming. She's just left for 
the shop,' her mother said. 

I took a shortcut through the grove, and reached Rowther's house 
through a narrow lane. A tiled house, the roof low. In the front yard there 
was a well on the right hand side, its parapet wall, stark, unpainted, broken. 
Velvet moss sprang around it in bright patches. Stone steps led to the house. 
A strip of gunny bag hung from the main door. 

'It's me, Ambi! ' I announced my arrival loudly. 

A little girl came out followed by another who was obviously her twin. 

'Who is it, child?' came Rowther's voice from inside the house. 

'It's me. Ambi,' I said. 

'Come! Come! Said Rowther. His voice bubbled with happiness. 

I pushed aside the sack curtain and went inside. The floor had been 
swabbed smooth with cowdung. Rowther was sitting cross-legged, like a 
lord. His arms reached out for me. 'Come, come,' his mouth kept saying. 

I went and knelt in front of him. He put his arms around me. His eyes 
stared and stared, as if trying to recapture the vision they had lost long ago. 
He pressed me down by my shoulders, dragged me towards him and sat me 
down beside him. His emotions seemed to overwhelm him. 

' Ah ! You seem to be wearing a dhoti today ! ' he said. 

'Just felt like it.' 

'What's the border like?' 

'Five-striped.' 

'Just like Ayyah, uhn? The boys in the shop tell me that you look just 
like your father, too. It is my misfortune that I can't see you. ' 

He ran his fingers over my face, my nose, my mouth, my neck, my 
eyes, my ears, my forehead. 'Everything in place, thank the Lord.' He laughed. 



32 



I thought that this was the right moment to tell him why I had come. 
But words stuck in my throat, as if held there by an unseen hand. 

'Amma. . . .' I started to say, making a tentative start. 

Rowther interrupted me. ' How is madam's health now?' 

'As usual.' 

'I have Thuthuvalai, Khandankattri leghiyam. No better medicine for 
asthma. Only, Ayyah likes to see English labels on his medicine bottles. I 
don't have English here. Only medicines,' he said, enjoying his own joke 
hugely. 

This was the right moment to tackle him. 

'Amma wants me to take you to the shop. She wants me to tell you 
that she is very sorry if Appa has said anything to hurt you. You are not to 
misunderstand him. She says please don't turn down her request.' 

Rowther's face visibly brightened. He raised his hands in salute. 

'Mother, you are a great woman,' he called out, 'Get up, let's go to 
the shop at once,' he said. 

That year the sales during Onam were very good. Rowther was in his 
element. With great elan he supervised the shop boys who constantly jostled 
around him. He looked like Abhimanyu in the Mahabharata fighting a whole 
battalion, single-handedly. He would state the price as soon as the cost and 
quantity of the material were mentioned to him. Only the good Lord knew 
what spark it was in his brain, what genius that did not need even a minute 
to calculate? A brain that could multiply and total up the cost of sixteen 
different items in a trice to announce, 'Item sixteen. Grand total - 1414 
rupees 25 paise,' how could that be called an average brain? Even if the 
whole thing were written down on the blackboard, I would have easily taken 
half an hour to work it out. But for him, answers slipped forth like lightning. 
He had never till now made a single mistake. Amma has told me that in the 
early years of their association, Appa used to sit up half the night, checking 
Rowther's calculations. It seems he'd say, 'That man is getting beside 
himself. I must find at least an error or two.' But he never could. He just 
lost a good night's sleep. 



33 



One day, a cart drawn by a single bullock, heavily curtained on both 
sides, stopped in front of the shop. From inside came the wailing of women 
and children. 

'Sounds like the females from my household,' Rowther said. 

Rowther's house had come up for public auction! Apparently amina 
was taking all the household things and flinging them on to the street. 

Rowther started crying like a child and called on God to help him out. 
Even as he was emoting, Kolappan came with a bill saying, '45 metres and 
70 centimetres at 13 rupees and 45 paise.' Rowther stopped his keening for 
a moment and said to him, 'Write this down, 614 rupees and 66 paise.' He 
turned to my father who sat at the cash counter and sobbed. 'Ayyah. I have 
to pay the court the loan and the interest on it, more than five thousand 
rupees. Where will I go for the money?' 

Appa took Rowther in the horse buggy to see a lawyer. 

Rowther did not show up for work the next day. Kolappan said he 
had with his own eyes seen Rowther, reciting the bills in Chettiar's shop. 

'What injustice! I have just come back after paying the court the entire 
amount for his debts. He's let me down, the ungrateful wretch!' Appa 
shouted. 

The shop assistant Kolappan also whipped himself into a fury. 

'He knows how to calculate, but he's a senseless idiot. Wait, I'll go 
this minute and drag him here by his hair,' he said as he jumped onto his 
bicycle. 

Appa sat down on the floor, devastated. He started to mumble. 

'This is a wicked world,' he said. 'These days you can't even trust 
your own mother. ' 

In a little while, Kolappan returned. Rowther was sitting behind him, 
on the carrier. He marched stone like Rowther to the cash-counter. 

'I lost my head, Ayyah,' said Rowther as he stood before Appa, his 
hands folded in supplication. 

'A time will come when you will be cut down to size,' said Appa. 

34 



'Please don't say such things, Ayyah,' pleaded Rowther. 'Come work 
for me and I'll pay your debts, the Chettiar said. And I lost my head.' 

Appa only repeated, 'The time will come when you will be cut down 
to size.' 

And, surprise of surprises, things soon happened that made it look as 
if Appa was going to be right after all. When Appa returned from Bombay 
that year after seeing his wholesalers, he brought back a small machine and 
showed it to Amma. 'This can do calculations,' he said 

'A machine?' 

'It can.' 

Amma made up a sum. Appa pressed a few keys. The machine gave 
the answer. 

I quickly worked it out on a piece of paper. 'The answer is correct, 
Amma!' I shouted. 

'Have they transformed Rowther's brain into a machine?' asked my 
mother. 

That whole day I kept trying out the calculator. That night, I kept it by 
my side when I slept. I gave it the most difficult sums I could think of. Its 
every was right. I remembered something Gomathi had once told me. 
'Thatha! How can you do sums in a nimit?'' she had asked Rowther, mixing 
up as she always did, the Tamil and the common English word. It seems 
Rowther had said, 'Child, I have three extra nerves in my brain. 'Now, how 
did those extra nerves get inside this machine? I couldn't control my 
excitement. 

I showed the calculator to Gomathi. She also worked out many many 
sums. 

'Even I am getting it all right,' she said, ' this machine is more cunning 
than Thatha!' 

One evening Rowther was totalling up for the day. Gomathi was sitting 
there, the calculator balanced on her lap, checking out his calculations. At 
one point, very impulsively she said, 'You are correct, Thatha.' 

'Are you telling me I am right?' asked Rowther. 

35 



'I have worked it out,' said Gomathi. 

'Hmm,' said Rowther. 'I'll give you a sum. Answer.' 

Rowther gave her a sum. Gomathi gave the right answer. He tried 
sum after sum on her. She had the correct answer each time. Rowther 
turned pale. 'Dear God. I am so dumb I cannot understand anything,' he 
muttered. 

'I'm not doing the sums, Thatha,' said Gomathi. 'It's the machine.' 

She stuffed the calculator into his hands. 

Rowther's hands shook as he took the calculator. His fingers trembled. 
He touched the whole front portion of the calculator, the whole back. 

'Is this doing the sums?' he asked again. 

'Yes,' said Gomathi. 

'You keep it yourself,' he said as he thrust it back at her. 

After this, Rowther was a very quiet man indeed. Words failed him. 
He remained in a state of stupor, leaning against the wall. That day, Goamthi 
and I took care of all the billing. After a long time, Gomathi dug her finger 
into his thigh and asked, ' Thatha, why don't you say something, Thatha?' 
But he said nothing even to that. 

He kept coming to the shop regularly but he looked and acted like a 
walking corpse. It seemed as if all the laughter, happiness, backchat, teasing, 
sarcasm, had dropped off him. His voice was slow, hesitant. Even his body 
looked thinner. 

Appa had stopped asking him to do the bills. 

One afternoon, it was a busy time in the shop. Murugan had a pile of 
cut pieces with him. I was working out the cost. Suddenly, Rowther 
interrupted him, 'What did you say was the price of poplin?' 

Murugan stopped calling out and looked at Rowther's face, '15 rupees 
and 10 paise per metre.' 

'Wrong. Get the material out and look-it is 16 rupees and 10 paise 
per metre.' 



36 



Appa got up. He came and stood next to Rowther. 

Murugan's face fell as he checked the price. 'You are right,' he 
mumbled. 

'You have sold ten metres. You could have lost ten rupees. Are you 
here to give away Ayyah's money to everyone who comes in from the street?' 

'So, you know the price?' Appa asked Rowther. 

'Only a memory, Ayyah. ' 

'Do you remember all the prices?' 

'It is God's will,' said Rowther. 

'What is the price of the smallest towel then?' asked Appa. 

'Four rupees and lOpaise.' 

'And the biggest one?' 

'Thirty-six rupees and 40 paise.' 

Appa kept on asking. The answers kept coming. 

Appa looked amazed. He could not believe his ears. He took a deep 
breath. He could not help doing so. 

'If that's so, you do one thing When bills are being made, please 
check the prices.' 

T will do my best, Ayyah,' said Rowther. Then he looked up and 
said,' Oh, by the way, have you paid your electricity bill, Ayyah? Today is 
the last date for the payment. ' 

'Oh, no ! ' said Appa, calling out to Kolappan. 

Rowther said, ' He hasn't come today, Ayyah.' 

'How do you know?' asked Appa. 

'Everybody has a voice, a smell. Today I missed Kolappan's voice, 
his smell,' said Rowther, and then he called out to Murugan. 

'Yesterday he told a customer that we had no double dhotis. Please 
reprimand him,' Rowther said. 



37 



'I don't understand,' said Appa. 

'Ayyah. You put out ten double dhotis for sale. Weren't only seven 
sold? There should be three remaining, shouldn't there?' 

Appa asked for the dhotis to be brought. 

Sure enough there were three unsold. 

Rowther let a sardonic smile play on his face. He said to Murugan, 
'Oh Lord Muruga, you merrily send customers away by telling them we 
don't have what we do actually have. Are we here for business or for charity?' 

That evening Rowther moved away from the bill-making section and 
went and sat closer to Appa. 

'If I am by your side I will be more helpful, Ayyah, ' he said and without 
missing a beat,' and if you increase the speed of the fan a little, yours truly 
will also get some breeze.' 

Appa gave the appropriate order. 

'It is the time to pay your advance income tax, sir. Shouldn't you see 
your auditor?' asked Rowther. 

'Yes, I must go see him,' said Appa. 

It was time to close the shop. 

'Ayyah, you had wanted to get some medicine for madam. Have you 
bought it, yet?' 

'I'll buy it' 

Appa was tugging at the locks to check if they had been locked 
properly. 

'Ayyah, you were saying that your mother's tithi was due soon. Why 
not ask Murugan to notify the priest on his way home?' 

'Good idea,' said Appa. 

The employees left one by one. 

Gomathi took Rowther 's hand, placed it on her shoulder and started 
moving. 



38 



'Won't you be doing the bills any more, Thatha?' 

'Ibrahim Hassan Rowther is no longer a mere adding machine. 

He is now the manager. It is God's will,' Rowther replied. 

FOR READERS' PRACTICE 

I. Answer the following questions: 

1 . Why couldn't Amma and Ambi wake up early? 

2. What was the errand on which Ambi was sent? (OR) Why was Ambi 
sent to Aanaipaalam? 

3 . What was Rowther's special skill? 

4. Why was Appa angry with Rowther? 

5. Is there any evidence to prove the bond Rowther had established with 
his employer? 

6. Was blindness a handicap for Rowther? 

7 . What was Amma's request for Rowther? 

8. "He's let me down, the ungrateful wretch!" Why did Appa say so? 

9 . Did the presence of the calculator upset Rowther? 

10. When did the Appa fully realise the extraordinary memory power of 
Rowther? 

1 1 . 'Rowther was an asset to Appa' . Explain 

12. What, according to Ambi, was Appa's weakness? 

1 3 . Why did Rowther ' s hand tremble when he took the calculator? 

14. What changes overcame Rowther when he was told about the 
calculator? Why was Rowther upset on knowing about the calculator? 

1 5 . When did Appa realise that a calculator is only a cheap substitute for a 
person like Rowther? 

16. 'Rowther was a loyal employer in Appa's service.' Narrate an incident 
to prove this. 

17. To whom did Rowther attribute his extraordinary memory power? 

II. Read the given passage and answer the questions: 

After this Rowther was a very quiet man indeed. Words failed him. 
He remained in a state of stupor, leaning against the wall. That day, Gomathi 
and I took care of all the billing. After a long time, Gomathi dug her finger 
into his thigh and asked, 'Thatha, why don't you say somethingThatha.' 
But he said nothing even to that. 

39 



He kept coming to the shop regularly but he looked and acted like a 
corpse. It seemed as if all the laughter, happiness, backchat, teasing, sarcasm, 
had dropped off him, His voice was slow, hesitant. Even his body looked 
thinner. 

Appa had stopped asking him to do the bills. 

1 . Why was Rowther asked not to do the billing ? 

2 . What made Rowther a very quiet man? 

3 . How did Rowther behave after the calculator was introduced? 

4 . Why did the narrator and Gomathi do the billing? 

5 . How did Rowther behave before calculator was put into use? 

SELF EVALUATION 

I. Rearrange the following sentences in the correct sequence: 

1 . One day Murugan made a wrong calculation . 

2 . Rowther was promoted as Manager. 

3 . Rowther was working in a Textile shop. 

4. Rowther corrected Murugan. 

5 . Rowther was a human calculator. 

6 . Rowther was upset when he was no more needed. 

7. Machines can never be a substitute to human beings. 

8 . The owner of the textile shop brought a calculator. 

9 . On being questioned Rowther gave the correct details of stock. 

1 . The owner realized that Rowther was indispensable . 

11. Attempt a character sketch of Rowther. 

Rowther - a human calculator - in Appa's service - commitment and 
sincerity - coupled with extraordinary memory power - made him invaluable 
- Appa's textile business - as well as family - Rowther - had to support - 
large family - ran into debts - compelled to work - several places - his 
blindness - never a handicap - he -loved by - Appa and his family - arrival 
of calculator- upset Rowther - but - his loyalty and involvement in Appa's 
business and family - prove him - a super machine - but with a human heart. 

40 



EVERY LIVING THING 

James Herriot 

Sometimes, when our dog and cat patients died the owners brought 
them in for us to dispose of them. It was always a sad occasion and I had a 
sense of foreboding when I saw old Dick Fawcett's fact. 

He put the improvised cat box on the surgery table and looked at me 
with unhappy eyes. 

"It's Frisk," he said. His lips trembled as though he was unable to say 
more. 

I didn't ask any questions, but began to undo the strings on the 
cardboard container. Dick couldn't afford a proper cat box, but he had used 
this one before, a home-made affair with holes punched in the sides. 

I untied the last know and looked inside at the motionless body. Frisk. 
The glossy black, playful little creature I knew so well, always purring and 
affectionate and Dick's companion and friend. 

"When did he die, Dick?" I asked. 

He passed a hand over his haggard face and through the straggling 
grey hairs. 

"Well, I just found 'im stretched out by my bed this morning. But 
I don'trightly know if he's dead yet, Mr. Herriot." 

I looked again inside the box. There was no sign of breathing. I lifted 
the limp form onto the table and touched the cornea of the unseeing eye. No 
reflex. I reached for my stethoscope and placed it over the chest. 

"The heart's still going, Dick, but it's a very faint beat." 

"Might stop any time, you mean ?" 

I hesitated. "Well, that's the way it sounds, I'm afraid." 

As I spoke, the little cat's rib-cage lifted slightly, then subsided. 

41 



"He's still breathing, "I said. "But only just." I examined the cat 
thoroughly and found nothing unusual. The conjunctiva of the eye was a 
good colour. In fact there was no abnormality. 

I passed a hand over the sleek little body. "This is a puzzler, Dick. 
He's always been so lively-lived up to his name, in fact, yet here he is, flat 
out, and I can't find any reason for it." 

"Could he have 'ad a stroke or summat?" 

"I suppose it's just possible, but I wouldn't expect him to be totally 
unconscious. I'm wondering if he might have had a blow on the head." 

T don't think so. He was as right as rain when I went to bed, and he 
was never out during t' night." The old man shrugged his shoulders. "Any 
road, it's a poor look-out for 'im?" 

"Afraid so, Dick. He's only just alive. But I'll give him a stimulant 
injection and then you must take him home and keep him warm. If he's still 
around tomorrow morning bring him in and I'll see how he's going on." 

I was trying to strike and optimistic note, but I was pretty sure that I 
would never see Frisk again and I knew the old man felt the same. 

His hands shook as he tied up the box and he didn't' speak until we 
reached the front door. He turned briefly to me and nodded. "Thank ye, Mr. 
Herriot." 

I watched him as he walked with shuffling steps down the street. He 
was going back to an empty little house with his dying pet. He had lost his 
wife many years ago-I has never known a Mrs. Fawcett-and he lived alone 
on his old-age pension. It wasn't much of a life. He was a quiet, kindly man 
who didn't go out much and seemed to have few friends, but he had Frisk. 
The little cat had walked in on him six years ago and had transformed his 
life, bringing a boisterous, happy presence into the silent house, making the 
old man laugh with his tricks and playfulness, following him around, rubbing 
against his legs. Dick wasn't lonely any more, and I had watched a warm 
bond of friendship growing stronger over the years. In fact, it was something 
more-the old man seemed to depend on Frisk. And now this. 

Well, I thought as I walked back down the passage, it was the sort of 
thing that happened in veterinary practice. Pets didn't live long enough. 

42 



But I felt worse this time because I had no idea what ailed my patient. I was 
in a total fog. 

On the following morning I was surprised to see Dick Fawcett sitting 
in the waiting room, the cardboard box on his knee. 

I stared at him. "What's happened?" 

He didn't answer and his face was inscrutable as we went through to 
the consulting room and he undid the knots. When he opened the box I 
prepared for the worst, but to my astonishment the little cat leaped out onto 
the table and rubbed his face against my hand, purring like a motorcycle. 

The old man laughed, his thin face transfigured. "Well, what d'ye 
think of that?" 

"I don't know what to think, Dick!" I examined the little animal 
carefully. He was completely normal. "All I know is that I'm delighted. It's 
like a miracle." 

"No, it isn't, "he said. "It was that injection you gave 'im. It's worked 
wonders. I'm right grateful." 

Well, it was kind of him, but it wasn't as simple as that. There was 
something here I didn't understand, but never mind. Thank heaven it had 
ended happily. 

The incident had receded into a comfortable memory when, three 
days later, Dick Fawcett reappeared at the surgery with his box. Inside was 
Frisk, motionless, unconscious, just as before. 

Totally bewildered. I repeated the injection and on the following day 
the cat was normal. From then on, I was in the situation that every veterinary 
surgeon knows so well-being involved in a baffling case and waiting with a 
feeling of impending doom for something tragic to happen. 

Nothing did happen for nearly a week, then Mrs. Duggan, Dick's 
neighbour, telephoned. 

"I'mringin' on behalf of Mr. Fawcett. His cat's ill." 

"In what way?" 

"Oh, just lyin' stretched out, unconscious, like," 

43 



I suppressed a scream. "When did this happen?" 

"Just found 'im this morning. And Mr. Fawcett cant't bring him to 
you-he's poorly himself. He's in bed." 

"I'm sorry to hear that I'll come round straight away." 

And it was just the same as before. An almost lifeless little creature 
lying prone on Dick's bed. Dick himself looked terrible- ghastly white and 
thinner than ever-but he still managed a smile. 

"Looks like'e needs another of your magic injections, Mr. Herriot." 

As I filled my syringe, my mind seethed with the thought that there 
was indeed some kind of magic at work here, but it wasn't my injection. 

"I'll drop in tomorrow. Dick, "I said. "And I hope you'll be feeling 
better yourself ." 

"Oh, I'll be awright as long as t'little feller's better." The old man 
stretched out a hand and stroked the cat's shinning fur. The arm was 
emaciated and the eyes in the skull-like face were desperately worried. 

I looked around the comfortless little room and hoped for another 
miracle. 

I wasn't really surprised when I came back next morning and saw 
Frisk darting about on the bed, pawing at a piece of string the old man was 
holding up for him. The relief was great but I felt enveloped more 
suffocatingly than ever in my fog of ignorance. What the hell was it? The 
whole thing just didn't make sense. There was no known disease with 
symptoms like these. I had a strong conviction that reading a whole library 
of veterinary books wouldn't help me. 

Anyway, the sight of the little cat arching and purring round my hand 
was reward enough, and for Dick it was everything. He was relaxed and 
smiling. 

"You keep gettin' him right, Mr. Herriot. I can't thank you enough." 
Then the worry flickered again in his eyes. "But is he goin' to keep doing 
it? I'm frightened he won't come round one of these times." 

Well, that was the question. I was frightened, too, but I had to try to 
be cheerful. "Maybe it's just a passing phase, Dick. I hope we'll have no 

44 



more trouble now." But I couldn't promise anything and the frail man in the 
bed knew it. 

Mrs. Duggan was showing me out when I saw the district nurse getting 
out of her car at the front door. 

"Hello, Nurse," I said. "You've come to have a look at Mr. Fawcett? 
I'm sorry he's ill." 

She nodded. "Yes, poor old chap. It's a great shame." 

"What do you mean? Is it something serious?" 

"Afraid so," Her mouth tightened and she looked away from me. "He's 
dying. It's cancer. Getting rapidly worse." 

"My God! Poor Dick. And a few days ago he was bringing his cat to 
my surgery. He never said a word. Does he know?" 

"Oh, yes, he knows, but that's him all over, Mr. Herriot. He's as game 
as pebble. He shouldn't have been out, really." 

"Is he is he suffering?" 

She shrugged. "Getting a bit of pain now, but we're keeping him as 
comfortable as we can with medication. I give him a shot when necessary 
and he has some stuff he can take himself if I'm not around. He's very 
shaky and can't pour from the bottle into the spoon. Mrs. Duggan would 
gladly do it for him, but he's so independent." She smiled for a moment. 
"He pours the mixture into a saucer and spoons it up that way." 

"A saucer ?" somewhere in the fog a little light glimmered. 

"What's in the mixture?" 

"Oh, heroin and pethidine. It's the usual thing Dr. Allinson prescribes." 

I seized her arm. "I'm coming back in with you, Nurse." 

The old man was surprised when I reappeared. "What's the matter, 
Mr.Herriot? have you left summat?" 

"No, Dick, I want to ask you something. Is your medicine pleasant- 
tasting?" 

"Aye, it's nice and sweet. It isn't bad to take at all." 

45 



"And you put it in a saucer?" 

"That's right. Me hand's abitdothery." 

"And when you take it last thing at night there's sometimes a bit left in 
the saucer?" 

"Aye, there is. Why?" 

"Because you leave that saucer by your bedside, don't you, and Frisk 
sleeps on your bed . . . ." 

The old man lay very still as he stared at me. "you mean the little beggar 
licks it out?" 

"I'll bet my boots he does." 

Dick threw back his head and laughed. A long, joyous laugh. "And 
that sends 'im to sleep! No wonder! It makes me right dozy, too!" 

I laughed with him. "Anyway, we know now, Dick. You'll put the saucer 
in the cupboard when you've taken your dose, won't you?" 

"I will that, Mr. Herriot. And Frisk will never pass out like that again?" 

"No, never again." 

"Eee, that's grand!" He sat up in the bed, lifted the little cat and held 
him against his face. He gave a sigh of utter content and smiled at me. 

"Mr. Herriot," he said. "I've got nowt to worry about now." 

Out in the street, as I bade Mrs. Duggan goodbye for the second time, 
I looked back at the little house. " 'Nowt to worry about,' eh? That's rather 
wonderful, coming from him." 

"Oh aye, and he means it, too. He's not bothered about himself." 

I didn't see Dick again for two weeks. I was visiting a friend in 
Darrowby 's little cottage hospital when I saw the old man in a bed in a corner 
of the ward. 

I went over and sat down by his side. His face was desperately thin, 
but serene. 

"Hello, Dick," I said. 

46 



He looked at me sleepily and spoke in a whisper. "Now then, Mr. 
Herriot." He closed his eyes for a few moments, then he looked up again 
with the ghost of a smile. "I'm glad we found out what was wrong with t'little 
cat." 

"So am I, Dick." 

Again apause. "Mrs. Duggan's got 'im." 

"Yes. I know. He has a good home there." 

"Aye .... Aye " The voice was fainter. "But oftens I wish I had 'im 

here." The bony hand stroked the counter pane and his lips moved again. I 
bent closer to hear. 

"Frisk. . . ." he was saying, "Frisk " Then his eyes closed and I saw 

that he was sleeping. 

I heard next day that Dick Fawcett had died, and it was possible that 
I was the last person to hear him speak. And it was strange, yet fitting, that 
those last words were about his cat. 

"Frisk.... Frisk " 

FOR READERS' PRACTICE 

I. Answer the following questions: 

1 . Why did Dick bring Frisk in a box to the veterinarian? 

2 . What was the problem with Frisk? 

3 . How did the cat react to the treatment? 

4 . Why did Dick' s neighbour ring up the doctor? 

5 . Whom did the veterinarian meet outside Dick's house? 

6 . What information about Dick did he get from the district nurse? 

7. What was the real reason for Cat's illness? 

8 . Who was taking care of Frisk when old Dick was in the hospital? 

9 . What was Mr. Dick happy about? 

10. What happened to Mr.Dick in the end? 

11. Read the given passage and answer the questions: 

She shrugged. "Getting a bit of pain now, but we're keeping him as 
comfortable as we can with medication. I give him a shot when necessary 
and he has some stuff he can take himself if I'm not around. He's very shaky 
and can't pour from the bottle into the spoon. Mrs. Duggan would 

47 



gladly do it for him, but he's so independent." She smiled for a moment. 
"He pours the mixture into a saucer and spoons it up that way." 

"A saucer ?," Some where in the fog a little light glimmered. " 

What is in the mixture?" 

"On heroin and pethidine. It is the usual thing Dr. Allinson prescribes." 

I seized her arm. " I'm coming back with you, Nurse." 

1 . Who is the person talking to the veterinarian? 

2. What was her purpose of visit? 

3 . What medicine did she prescribe for Dick? 

4. Why did Dick take the medicine from a Saucer? 

5 . How did the information help the veterinarian? 

SELF EVALUATION 

I. Rearrange the following sentences in the correct sequence: 

1 . Frisk always slept on his bed. 

2 . Dick was suffering from cancer. 

3 . Dick thought that Frisk was sick. 

4. Dick was asked to take a mixture of medicines before going to bed. 

5 . Dick had a cat called Frisk. 

6. When Dick knew the reason for Frisk's illness he was relieved of his 
worry. 

7 . Frisk licked the left over medicine . 

8 . Dick's hands were shaky. 

9 . The medicine made Frisk sleepy the next day 

10. Dick poured the mixture in a saucer and spooned it up . 

11. Write an essay on how the mystery of Frisk's illness get solved by 
developing the hints given below: 

Veterinarian - Dick with the dog - dog unconscious - hopeless 
condition - injection - next day Frisk alright - Three days later Frisk ill 
again - next week - neighbour's phone call - Dick and Frisk ill - Veterinarian 
meets the district nurse - learns about the treatment - know that the cat 
licks the left over medicine - cat is cured - Dick dies later 



48 



KAANCHANAI 

Pudumaippittan 

I just couldn 't sleep that night, for no apparent reason. My mind was 
neither troubled, nor was it overflowing with happiness to keep me awake 
thus. I am just like everyone else. Yet my job is not like that of anyone else. 
I write fiction. That is to say, I spin yarns, and make a living out of the 
journalistic establishments that are prepared to accept them. My lies are 
accepted. Or in other words, they are recognized by the majority of the 
world as God, Dharma, et cetera, in various names and forms. This is what 
is called Creation, living in the land of the imagination et cetera. In fact 
liars like me are called other Brahmas, Second Creators. And I am the 
youngest in this lineage of duplicate Brahmas. When I think of all this, I 
feel some pride, certainly. Is the handiwork of Brahma false, too, like ours? 
Am I false? If such philosophic queries occur around twelve o' clock at 
night, who won't begin to doubt his digestive system? "Ada, chut ! I muttered 
impatiently, and sat up. 

This house had been built in such a way that one could sit up in bed 
and switch on the electric lights just by reaching out an arm. I did so. The 
sudden light troubled my eyes. My wife was fast asleep in the adjacent bed. 
What was she dreaming about? A smile played hide and seek at the corner 
of her lips. She was perhaps exulting in her culinary skills which could drag 
a man into philosophical inquiry right in the middle of the night. Stirring in 
her sleep, she moaned slightly and turned over. She was three months 
pregnant. Why should I wake her and make her sit up with me just because 
I couldn't sleep? 

I put out the light immediately. I always feel a profound sense of 
peace, sitting in the dark. Isn't it true that at such a time, you become one 
with the darkness, united with the night, invisible to others? You can then 
drive that wooden cart-your own mind- wherever you please. People usually 
describe imagination as a chariot that can reach the place you wish to go to, 

49 



the very moment you choose. But in reality, it is a wooden cart that follows 
along the thoughts of generations of human beings, from the earliest times 
to the present day-a path so frequently trodden upon that it has been turned 
into a beaten track. There are only the grooves made by wheels constantly 
grinding into the dust, and between them, a raised ground, less frequently 
walked upon. Occasionally the wheels have stumbled off the rut and on to 
the raised ground, giving those inside the cart a sudden jolt, otherwise it is 
always a gentle path, without peril, the track of well bred bullocks . 

Lost in the comfort of thoughts, it seemed that in the dark I had smeared 
rather too much lime on the betel leaf. My tongue felt the sharp sting. 
Normally I don't bother about such things. If you choose to chew betel 
leaves in the dark, if you let go of the harness leaving your mind to roam at 
will, then you should not mind such minor disasters. With due respect, I 
tossed the tobacco, ready in the palm of my hand, into my mouth. 

Chi! What a foul smell! Stinking like a putrefying corpse! Feeling 
nauseous, and wondering whether the tobacco I was chewing had been 
tainted, I went to the window, spat it out, and rinsed my mouth before 
returning to sit on the bed. 

I couldn't stand the stink. It was as if a body had rotted and the stench 
was somewhere near. I couldn't stand it, couldn't understand it. Was it 
coming from the window? But there wasn't even the faintest breeze blowing. 
I felt my bed and walked again to the window. I hadn't moved two paces 
before the stench completely disappeared. How extraordinary ! I returned to 
the bed. There it was, again that foul smell. Was some dead creature lying 
under the bed? I switched on the light. Under the bed, there was only a 
cloud of dust that made me sneeze. I stood up and slapped myself free of 
dust. 

My sneeze woke up my wife. "What is it, aren't you asleep yet? What's 
the time?" she asked, yawning. 

It was exactly one minute after twelve. 

And wonder of wonders ! The stench had changed into a kind of scent. 
The smell of incense sticks-in fact low grade incense sticks, the kind lit by 
the side of corpses. 

"Can you smell something here?" I asked her. 

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"No, nothing at all,' she said. After sniffing a while, she said, "There's 
a faint smell of incense. Someone must have lit them somewhere. I'm sleepy. 
Put out the lights and lie down." 

I switched off the light. Traces of the smell still lingered. Going to the 
window I peeped out. Only starlight 

The shutters of the windows and the front door of the house trembled 
and banged softly. For just a second. Then silence. An earthquake, perhaps? 
In the starlight, a fruit-bat spread its wide leathery wings, flew towards the 
groves opposite, and disappeared beyond. 

Both the stench and the scent had disappeared without a trace. I came 
back and lay down. 

Next day, when I woke up at last from my pre dawn sleep, it was 
already late morning. I picked up the newspaper that had been flung through 
the window, and came out to sit on a cane chair in the front veranda. After 
creaking its objection, the chair bore my weight. 

My life's partner came out, stood beside me and started complaining, 
"First of all of you stay awake all night and then sleep late into the morning, 
and now if you come and sit here like this, what is to happen to the coffee?" 

I had an unshakable belief in Democracy and World Peace, and I was 
worried that both were being jeopardized by "The Advance of the Allied 
Forces, undeterred by any Resistance." 

"All thanks to your elaborate cooking," I said, in a feeble counter 
attack, rising to my feet. 

"You have nothing better to do, what else can you think of except to 
find fault with me? Well, it's no worse than the stories you write!" With this 
parting shot, she went towards the kitchen. 

Bound by household rules, I went and cleaned my teeth, and then, 
holding the tumbler of scalding coffee with a towel, scanned the columns of 
the newspaper. 

Just then a beggar woman, and a young one at that, came along, singing 
an unknown song. She stopped at our doorstep, calling out, "Amma, thaaye." 



51 



I glanced up sharply, then deciding that it was impossible to battle 
with beggars, put up my newspaper and built a fence around myself. 

My wife came out to the front corridor, scolding the woman. "Aren't 
you able bodied? Why can't you earn a living by working in a few houses?" 

"If I am given work, wouldn't I do it? My belly burns, thaaye. So far, 
I haven't got even a handful of rice from this street. Give me a piece of cloth 
to cover myself, amma." She started employing a beggar's usual arsenal. 

"I'll give you work, but will you stay on? I'll give you food to fill your 
belly, clothes to cover yourself, what do you say?" 

"Will that not be enough, amma? These days who is ready to give even 
that?" Saying so, she stood there, smiling at my wife. 

"Shall I let her stay on and try her out for a couple of days? 

You know how easily I tire these days," My wife asked me. 

"Chi, are you crazy? You want to engage a donkey of a beggar, who 
comes from heaven knows where? Can't you find anyone else in this entire 
world?" 

The beggar woman, who was standing outside, chuckled. There was a 
fatal charm in that laughter. My wife kept gazing at her, without once turning 
her eyes away. It seemed as if her entire will had become one with that 
nameless creature. 

"Can't you tell a person from her face? You come in, amma," 
countermanding my orders, my wife took her inside. 

And the deceitful beggar followed her, rejoicing within. What! I rubbed 
my eyes and stared at her feet. They walked in the air, a minuscule distance- 
the height of a kunrimani seed-above the ground. I felt a shiver go through 
me. Was it an illusion? When I looked again, the beggar woman glanced at 
me with a smile. Ayyo, was that a smile! As if a spear of ice had struck 
through my bones to the marrow, it nearly killed me with terror. 

I called by wife to my side. I told her that it wasn't good to have this 
woman in our home. But she, for her part, insisted most obstinately that she 
must have this stranger for her servant. Is there no end to the odd desires of 
early pregnancy? My heart beat fast in certain anticipation of disaster. 

52 



I peeped at her feet again. They touched the ground like everyone else. What 
was this strange illusion? 

Tenali Raman proved that it was impossible to turn a black dog into a 
white one. My wife, on the other hand, established that we can turn even beggars 
into the same kind of human beings we ourselves are. It was clear that once the 
beggar woman had bathed, washed her hair and put on clean, though old, clothes, 
she was fit to sit next to anyone and talk to them as an equal. It seemed that this 
woman was adept at amusing conversation. I heard frequent chuckles and giggles. 
I was surprised at the way she waited on my wife, hand and foot. My own fears 
of a while ago seemed to mock at me. 

It was dusk, the darkening hour. My wife and that maid were sitting 
together, laughing, telling stories. I had turned the lights on in the front room and 
was observing her under the pretext of reading a book. Between the hall where 
I sat, and the room where they were, there was a central area. I had hung a 
mirror there. Their reflections were clearly visible in it. 

My wife told her, 'You've roamed about everywhere, haven't you? Tell 
me a story," 

"Yes, it's true I've been to all sorts of places like Kasi and Haridwar. I was 
told a story once, in Kasi. Shall I tell it to you?" 

"Yes, tell me. Tell me the story." 

"They say it was five hundred years ago. The Raja of Kasi had an only 
daughter. It was said that you could not find another to match her beauty. The 
Raja also wanted her to be learned in all fields. The guru chosen for her was a 
great sorcerer, he knew everything there was to know about magic, devices, 
strategies. And he had an eye on the princess. She, however, wanted to marry 
the prime minister's son. 

"Somehow he found out about this. Who found out? That guru." 

This was a miracle ! Was I listening to the story she was telling my wife, or 

was I reading its account in the book I held in my hands? The book was an 

English one, called Historical Documents. The story of the King of Varanasi's 

daughter was staring at me, in print. The last line of the page that was open in 

front of me was an English translation of the words, "He found out about this." 

My head began to spin. I broke into a sweat. Was I going mad? I kept my eyes 

fixed on the open page. The print began to dim. 

53 



Suddenly, devilish laughter! With the sharpness of an explosion, it 
seized my entire mind. I looked up with shock. My gaze fell on the mirror. 
Reflected there, I could see a loathsome figure, its teeth bared, laughing in 
frenzied intoxication. I had seen many repulsive figures-those that appeared 
in my own dreams, and those imagined by the sculptor's chisel. But I had 
never seen anything as horrifying as this. The horror was apparent only in 
the teeth and the eyes. In the rest of her features there was a wonderful 
serenity, mesmerizing the onlooker. In the eyes, a blood thirstiness. In the 
teeth, a greed to tear at the flesh and gorge upon it. Behind this faint image, 
tongues of flame from the fire of the kitchen hearth. I gazed at it, lost to 
everything. In a minute the image disappeared. The next minute it was the 
beggar woman's face reflected there. 

"I simply forgot to ask your name." My wife's question reached my 
ears. 

"Why not call me Kaanchanai? Like the Kaanchanai in the story. It 
doesn't matter what you call me. It's just a name, after all." 

My heart would not consent to leave my wife alone with her. Heaven 
knew what might happen. Once the mind is overtaken by fear, can there be 
a limit to the trembling within? 

I went inside. They were merrily chatting. 

When I entered, having summoned a forced smile, I was greeted with 
barbed words. "What business do you have amongst us womenfolk?" 

The woman who called herself Kaanchanai was bent low, chopping 
something. A smile brimming with mischief played at the corner of her 
mouth. Unable to say anything further, I became the sentry once more, 
standing guard behind my book fence. My wife, after all, was pregnant. 
Could I frighten her? How, else could I protect her? 

We ate and then went to bed. The two of us slept upstairs. The woman 
called Kaanchanai slept in the front room. 

I was merely lying on the bed. Did not close my eyelids. 

How could I? Heaven knows how long I lay like that. My heart was 
beating fast, wondering whether last night's smell would return. 

Somewhere a clock began its process of striking the midnight hour. 

54 



The echo of the eleventh stroke had not yet died away. 

Somewhere a door creaked. 

Suddenly, sharp nails fell upon my hand, scratched across and slid 
away. 

Shaking all over, I sat up. Thank goodness, I did not babble. 

It was my wife's hand that had fallen thus. 

Was it really hers? 

I got up, bent over and observed her closely. She was fast asleep and 
breathing steadily. 

I was eager to go down and investigate, but afraid! 

I went. I climbed down softly, my footsteps making no noise. 

It felt as if a whole yuga passed by. 

Quietly I peeped into the front room. The outside door was closed. 
Moonlight streaming in through the open window nearby, pointed to the 
empty mat and pillow. 

My legs wouldn't hold up. They trembled violently. 

Without turning around, walking backwards, I reached the stairs. Had 
she gone upstairs perhaps? 

I hurried upstairs. 

It was quiet there. 

As peaceful as before. 

My mind would not clear. 

I stood by the window and watched the moonlight. 

There was no human movement to be seen. 

Only a dog howled somewhere, raising a lament which faded away. 

From the opposite corner of the sky a giant bat flew towards our house. 

As I stood watching, my fear began to ebb. I became calm, assuring 
myself that it was an illusion. 

55 



But downstairs? 

I was eager to see once more. 

I went downstairs. 

I didn't have the courage to go in. 

But there ! Kaanchanai was indeed sitting on her mat. She smiled at me. A 
poisonous smile. My heart froze. Pretending to be calm, I went up the stairs, 
muttering, "What is it, can't you sleep?" 

Was there a smell of frankincense then? I seem to remember it being there. 

When I woke up, it was very late. 

My wife woke me up saying, "What's happening to you, as time goes on, 
you seem to be sleeping the days away. The coffee is getting cold." 

At daytime, when darkness or fear do not have a place to hide, everything 
certainly looks different. But deep within the mind, fear had taken root. How 
was I to get rid of this danger? 

Can you seek comfort by sharing with someone else the mental torment 
you experience because of your wife's adultery? This situation was like that. 
Suppose someone like me, someone who boasted that he was doing a literary 
service to society at large, and who fooled himself into believing it, were to go 
about saying, "Saar, a pei, a she-devil, has come to live in our house. I am 
terrified that she might harm my wife. Can you advise me how to get rid of this 
peril?" People would surely wonder whether I was making fun of them, or whether 
I had gone mad. To whom could I explain it all and ask for help? How long could 
I stand guard? 

How was this all going to end? What disaster was there in store? I was in 
a quandary, neither able to speak about it nor to swallow it all quietly. Heaven 
knew what magic potion this new servant had given my wife. They spent their 
time together without the slightest burden on their hearts. 

That day, morning and night seem to chase each other. And I had never 
known time to pass by so quickly. 

At night, as we were about to go to bed, my wife announced, "Kaanchanai 
is going to sleep upstairs, in the room next to ours." I felt as if a lighted fire had 
been placed in my lap. 

56 



What plot was afoot? 

I will not sleep at all. I will spend all night sitting up, I decided. 

"What is it, aren't you going to lie down?" asked my wife. 

"I'm not sleepy" I answered. Terror, like a sharp spear, pierced me. 

"As you wish," she said, lying down on her side. And that was it. She 
was fast asleep. Was it an ordinary sleep? 

I too wearied of sitting up so long, lay down, thinking I'll rest my 
body. 

It began to strike twelve. 

What is this smell! 

My wife, lying next to me, screamed in an inhuman voice. Among those 
meaningless sounds which gushed out in the guise of words, I could make 
out the single name, "Kaanchanai." 

I switched on the light immediately and shook her, again and again, to 
awaken her. 

She came to herself and sat up, shuddering. Rubbing her eyes, she 
said, "I felt as it something bit my throat and sucked my blood." 

I peered at her throat closely. 

At the hollow of her throat, there was a tiny spot of blood, like a 
pinhead. Her entire body was shaking. 

"Don't be afraid, I lied deliberately." You must have thought of something 
strange as you feel asleep." 

Her body was trembling. She slid back on the bed in a faint. 

At that very moment there was the sound of a temple gong. 

Some strange song in a cacophonous voice. 

A voice, calling out with authority, "Kaanchanai! Kaanchanai! 

A wild scream which seemed to shake my entire house. All the doors 
banged repeatedly. 



57 



Then a silence. The deep silence of the cremation ground. 

I got up and peeped towards the entrance of the house. 

A man stood in the middle of the street. What a countenance ! 

"Come here," he signalled. Like a puppet on a string, I climbed down the 
stairs and went out. 

As I passed the room where Kaanchanai slept, I could not help looking 
inside. As expected, she wasn't there. 

I went into the street. 

He said, "Rub this on amma's forehead. Kaanchanai won't trouble you 
hereafter. Go and do it immediately. Don't wake her up". 

The vibhuti felt hot. 

I brought it inside and rubbed it on my wife's forehead. Was it ordinary 
vibhuti? I couldn't be sure. I certainly remembered he did not hold a bell in his 
hand. 

Three days passed. 

As she gave my coffee in the morning, my wife said, "These men are all 
like that," What could I say? 

FOR READERS PRACTICE 

I. Answer the following questions: 

1 . What is the problem with the narrator? 

2 . What is the significance of stench in the story? 

3 . Describe the beggar woman. 

4. Why did the narrator object to the suggestion of employing the beggar 
woman? 

5 . Narrate the story the beggar woman was telling. 

6 . Why does the narrator call it a miracle? 

7 . What was the narrator afraid of? 

8 . What is the role played by stench again? 

9 . What did he observe on the last night? 

1 . What brought relief to her author? 

1 1 . Pick out at least two occasions in the story that is horrifying? 

1 2. What do you think Kanchana was? 

58 



II. Read the passage and answer the questions: 

My heart would not consent to leave my wife alone with her. Heaven 
knew what might happen. Once the mind is overtaken by fear, can there be 
a limit to the trembling with in? 

I went inside. They were merrily chatting, when I entered, having 
summoned a forced smile. I was greeted with barbed words. " what business 
do you have amongst us women folk?" 

The woman who called herself Kanchanai was bent low chopping 
something. A smile brimming with mischief played at the corner of her 
mouth. Unable to say anything further, I became the sentry once more, 
standing guard behind my book fence. My wife, after all, was pregnant. 
Could I frighten her? 

1 . What made the narrator get a disturbed mind? 

2 . Why did he force a smile? 

3 . What did he want to tell his wife? 

4 . Why did he not tell his wife, what he wanted to say ? 

5 . How did Kanchanai react to narrator's entry? 

SELF EVALUATION 

I. Rearrange the following sentences in the correct sequence: 

1 . Narrator's wife takes the beggar woman as a servant. 

2 . The beggar woman said her name was Kanchanai 

3 . Narrator has a premonition that something bad will happen. 

4. Narrator's wife takes the Kanchanai into confidence. 

5 . The narrator was awake all through the night. 

6. That night narrator's wife complained that something bit her throat. 

7 . Next morning a beggar woman comes . 

8 . The man gave Vibhuti to apply on his wife's forehead. 

9 . A man stood in the middle of the street. 

10. There was a tiny spot of blood on his wife's throat. 

11. Answer in an essay developing the hints : 

Why did the narrator get antagonised to the beggar woman and how 
did he get relieved from horror? 



59 



Narrator - writer - previous night disturbed - stench - uneasiness - 
next day - beggar woman - uneasy about her - his wife employs her - 
sleepless night eerie sensation - Kanchanai story - next night Kanchanai 
not in bed - wife screams - a man gives vibhuthi - feels relieved. 



60